Key Points

The Peloponnesian War finished in win for Sparta and its allies, but signaled the demise of Athenian naval and also political hegemony transparent the Mediterranean.Democracy in Athens to be briefly overthrown in 411 BCE as a an outcome of its bad handling that the Peloponnesian War. Lysander, the Spartan admiral that commanded the Spartan fleet in ~ Aegospotami in 405 BCE, assisted to organize the Thirty Tyrants as Athens’ government for the 13 month they preserved power.Lysander established many pro-Spartan federal governments throughout the Aegean, where the ruling classes were more loyal come him 보다 to Sparta as a whole. Ultimately Spartan kings, Agis and also Pausanias, abolished these Aegean decarchies, curbing Lysander’s political influence.Agesilaus II was one of two Spartan kings during the duration of Spartan hegemony, and also is remembered because that his multiple campaigns in the east Aegean and also Persian territories.Agesilaus’s loss at the fight of Leuctra efficiently ended Spartan hegemony transparent the region.

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Terms

hegemony

The political, economic, or army predominance or regulate of one state end others.

harmosts

A Spartan term because that a armed forces governor.

oligarchy

A kind of power framework in which a tiny group of people hold all power and influence in a state.


The Peloponnesian War ended in victory for Sparta and its allies, and led directly to the climbing naval strength of Sparta. However, it significant the death of Athenian naval and also political hegemony throughout the Mediterranean. The devastation from the Peloponnesian battle weakened and also divided the Greeks for years come come, eventually enabling the Macedonians an chance to dominate them in the mid-4th century BCE.

Athens

Democracy in Athens to be briefly overthrown in 411 BCE as a an outcome of its negative handling the the Peloponnesian War. Citizens reacted against Athens’ defeat, blaming autonomous politicians, such as Cleon and Cleophon. The Spartan military encouraged revolt, installation a pro-Spartan oligarchy within Athens, called the Thirty Tyrants, in 404 BCE. Lysander, the Spartan admiral that commanded the Spartan fleet in ~ Aegospotami in 405 BCE, assisted to organize the Thirty Tyrants together a federal government for the 13 months they maintained power.

During the Thirty Tyrants’ rule, 5 percent of the Athenian population was killed, exclusive property to be confiscated, and also democratic pendant were exiled. The Thirty appointed a board of directors of 500 to serve the judicial features that had previously belonged to every citizens. Despite all this, not all Athenian men had actually their civil liberties removed. In fact, 3,000 such males were favored by the Thirty come share in the federal government of Athens. These men were permitted to carry weapons, licensed has been granted to jury trial, and permitted to reside through the city limits. This list of males was constantly being revised, and an option was most most likely a have fun of commitment to the regime, v the bulk of Athenians not sustaining the Thirty Tyrants’ rule.

Nonetheless, the Thirty’s regimen was no met with much overt opposition because that the bulk of their rule, together a result of the harsh penalties put on dissenters. Eventually, the level the violence and also brutality carried out by the Thirty in Athens led to enhanced opposition, stemming mostly from a rebel team of exiles led by Thrasybulus, a previous trierarch in the Athenian navy. The raised opposition culminated in a transformation that eventually overthrew the Thirty’s regime. In the aftermath, Athens gave amnesty to the 3,000 guys who were given special treatment under the regime, v the exemption of those who made up the administer Thirty and also their associated governmental officials. Athens struggled to recoup from the upheaval led to by the Thirty Tyrants in the years the followed.

Sparta

As a result of the Peloponnesian War, Sparta, which had actually primarily been a continent culture, ended up being a navy power. In ~ its peak, Sparta overpowered many vital Greek states, including the upstream Athenian navy. Through the end of the 5th century BCE, Sparta’s successes against the Athenian empire and capability to invade Persian districts in Anatolia ushered in a period of Spartan hegemony. This hegemonic duration was to it is in short-lived, however.

Lysander

After the end of the Peloponnesian War, Lysander established numerous pro-Spartan governments throughout the Aegean. Most of the ruling systems set up by Lysander were ten-man oligarchies, dubbed decarchies, in i m sorry harmosts, Spartan military governors, to be the heads of the government. Since Lysander appointed from in ~ the judgment classes of these governments, the males were more loyal to Lysander than Sparta, making these Aegean outposts similar to a exclusive empire.

Lysander and also Spartan king Agis to be in commitment with Corinth and also Thebes that Athens should be entirely destroyed in the aftermath of the Peloponnesian War, but they to be opposed through a an ext moderate faction, top by Pausanias. Eventually, Pausanias’ middle faction gained the top hand and Athens to be spared, despite its defensive walls and also port fortifications at Piraeus to be demolished. Lysander additionally managed to need Athens come recall that exiles, bring about political instability within the city-state, of which Lysander took benefit to create the oligarchy that happened known together the Thirty Tyrants. Since Lysander was also directly associated in the an option of the Thirty, these guys were loyal to him over Sparta, causing King Agis and also King Pausanias come agree come the abolishment the his Aegean decarchies, and eventually the reconstruction of democracy in Athens, which easily curbed Lysander’s politics influence.


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Lysander. A 16th century sculpture of Lysander


 

Agesilaus and His Campaigns

Agesilaus II was among two Spartan kings throughout the period of Spartan hegemony. Lysander was one of Agesilaus’s best supporters, and was even a mentor. Throughout his kingship, Agesilaus carried out a variety of military projects in the eastern Aegean and Persian territories. Throughout these campaigns, the Spartans under Agesilaus’s command met with countless rebelling Greek poleis, including the Thebans. The Thebans, Argives, Corinthians, and also Athenians had rebelled throughout the Corinthian battle from 395-386 BCE, and the Persians aided the Thebans, Corinthians, and Athenians versus the Spartans.

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During the winter that 379/378 BCE, a group of Theban exiles snuck into Thebes and succeeded in liberating it, regardless of resistance native a 1,500-strong Spartan garrison. This resulted in a number of Spartan expeditions versus Thebes, well-known as The Boeotian War. The Greek city-states eventually attempted to broker peace, however Theban diplomat Epaminondas angered Agesilaus by arguing for the freedom of non-Spartan citizens within Laconia. As a result, Agesilaus excluded the Thebans native the treaty, and also the battle of Leuctra broke out in 371 BCE; the Spartans at some point lost. Sparta’s international political affect precipitated conveniently after your defeat.