Identify the causes of the Mexican-American WarDescribe the outcomes of the battle in 1848, particularly the Mexideserve to CessionDescribe the effect of the California Gold Rush on westward expansion

Tensions in between the USA and also Mexico quickly deteriorated in the 1840s as American expansionists eagerly eyed Mexideserve to land also to the west, consisting of the lush northern Mexican province of California. Certainly, in 1842, a U.S. naval fleet, wrongly believing battle had actually damaged out, seized Monterey, California, a component of Mexico. Monterey was changed the following day, but the episode only added to the uneasiness with which Mexico viewed its northern neighbor. The pressures of development, but, could not be included, and Amerihave the right to voters chosen James Polk in 1844 because he promised to provide more lands. President Polk fulfilled his promise by obtaining Oregon and, most spectacularly, provoking a war via Mexico that ultimately fulfilled the wildest fantasies of expansionists. By 1848, the United States encompassed a lot of The United States and Canada, a republic that extended from the Atlantic to the Pacific.

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JAMES K. POLK AND THE TRIUMPH OF EXPANSION

A fervent idea in development gripped the United States in the 1840s. In 1845, a New York newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan, presented the concept of “manifest destiny” to explain the extremely well-known idea of the distinct role of the USA in overspreading the continent—the magnificent right and duty of white Americans to seize and also work out the Amerideserve to West, hence spanalysis Protestant, autonomous values. In this climate of opinion, voters in 1844 chosen James K. Polk, a slaveholder from Tennescheck out, because he vowed to annex Texas as a new servant state and take Oregon.

Annexing Oregon was an essential objective for U.S. international plan bereason it appeared to be an area wealthy in commercial possibilities. Northerners favored UNITED STATE control of Oregon bereason ports in the Pacific Northwest would be gatemeans for trade through Asia. Southerners hoped that, in exchange for their assistance of expansion right into the northwest, northerners would not oppose plans for growth into the southwest.

President Polk—whose campaign slogan in 1844 had been “Fifty-4 forty or fight!”—asserted the United States’ right to acquire full manage of what was well-known as Oregon Country, from its southerly border at 42° latitude (the current boundary through California) to its northern border at 54° 40′ latitude. According to an 1818 agreement, Great Britain and also the United States hosted joint ownership of this area, but the 1827 Treaty of Joint Occupation opened up the land also to negotiation by both nations. Realizing that the British were not willing to cede all clintends to the region, Polk proposed the land be split at 49° latitude (the current border between Washington and Canada). The British, but, denied UNITED STATE clintends to land north of the Columbia River (Oregon’s present northern border) ((Figure)). Indeed, the British foreign secretary refprovided even to relay Polk’s proposal to London. However before, reports of the difficulty Great Britain would certainly challenge deffinishing Oregon in the occasion of a U.S. strike, unified with concerns over affairs at home and somewhere else in its empire, quickly changed the minds of the British, and in June 1846, Queen Victoria’s federal government agreed to a division at the forty-ninth parallel.


This map of the Oregon area during the duration of joint occupation by the United States and Great Britain shows the area whose ownership was disputed by the two powers.

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In January 1846, the U.S. force that was ordered to the banks of the Rio Grande to develop a fort on the “American” side encountered a Mexican mounties unit on patrol. Shots rang out, and also sixteen UNITED STATE soldiers were killed or wounded. Angrily proclaiming that Mexico “has attacked our area and melted Amerihave the right to blood upon Amerideserve to soil,” President Polk demanded the USA declare war on Mexico. On May 12, Congress obliged.

The small but vocal antislavery faction decried the decision to go to war, arguing that Polk had actually deliberately provoked hostilities so the United States can annex even more servant region. Illinois representative Abraham Lincoln and also various other members of Congress issued the “Spot Resolutions” in which they demanded to know the precise spot on U.S. soil wbelow Amerihave the right to blood had actually been spilled. Many type of Whigs additionally denounced the war. Democrats, but, sustained Polk’s decision, and also volunteers for the army came forward in droves from eexceptionally part of the nation except New England, the seat of abolitionist task. Enthusiasm for the battle was aided by the widely organized idea that Mexico was a weak, impoverished country and also that the Mexideserve to world, viewed as ignorant, lazy, and also controlled by a corrupt Roguy Catholic clergy, would be simple to defeat. ((Figure)).


Anti-Catholic sentiment played an important role in the Mexican-American War. The Amerideserve to public extensively concerned Roguy Catholics as cowardly and also vice-ridden, favor the clergy in this ca. 1846 lithograph that are displayed fleeing the Mexican tvery own of Matamoros accompanied by pretty womales and baskets complete of alcohol. (credit: Library of Congress)

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The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed in February 1848, was a triumph for American expansionism under which Mexico yielded nearly half its land also to the United States. The Mexihave the right to Cession, as the occupation of land also west of the Rio Grande was called, consisted of the current claims of California, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and also portions of Coloraexecute and Wyoming. Mexico also known the Rio Grande as the border via the United States. Mexihave the right to citizens in the delivered region were promised U.S. citizenship later once the territories they were living in became says. In exreadjust, the USA agreed to assume $3.35 million worth of Mexideserve to debts owed to UNITED STATE citizens, passist Mexico $15 million for the loss of its land, and promised to guard the citizens of the Mexihave the right to Cession from Indian raids.

As substantial as the Mexican Cession was, some said the United States have to not be satisfied till it had taken all of Mexico. Many type of who were opposed to this principle were southerners who, while desiring the annexation of even more slave region, did not want to make Mexico’s large mestizo (civilization of mixed Indian and European ancestry) populace part of the USA. Others did not want to absorb a large team of Roguy Catholics. These expansionists might not accept the concept of new UNITED STATE territory filled with mixed-race, Catholic populations.


Explore the U.S.-Mexihave the right to War at PBS to check out about life in the Mexideserve to and UNITED STATE armies throughout the battle and also to learn even more around the various battles.


CALIFORNIA AND THE GOLD RUSH

The USA had actually no method of discovering that component of the land about to be yielded by Mexico had actually simply come to be far more practical than anyone could have imagined. On January 24, 1848, James Marshall discovered gold in the millrace of the sawmill he had developed with his partner John Sutter on the southern fork of California’s Amerideserve to River. Word easily spread, and within a few weeks every one of Sutter’s employees had actually left to search for gold. When the news got to San Francisco, many of its citizens abandoned the town and also headed for the American River. By the finish of the year, thousands of California’s residents had actually gone north to the gold fields with visions of wide range dancing in their heads, and also in 1849 thousands of world from about the human being adhered to them ((Figure)). The Gold Rush had begun.


Word about the exploration of gold in California in 1848 easily spread and also thousands quickly made their means to the West Coast in search of quick wide range.

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The fantasy of immediate wide range induced a mass exodus to California. Settlers in Oregon and also Utah rushed to the American River. Easterners cruised roughly the southern reminder of South America or to Panama’s Atlantic coast, wbelow they crossed the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific and also booked ship’s passage for San Francisco. As California-bound vessels quit in South Amerideserve to ports to take on food and fresh water, numerous Peruvians and also Chileans streamed aboard. Easterners that can not afford to sail to The golden state crossed the continent on foot, on horseago, or in wagons. Others journeyed from as much away as Hawaii and also Europe. Chinese civilization came too, including to the polyglot population in the The golden state boomtowns ((Figure)).


This Currier & Ives lithograph from 1849 imagines the extreme lengths that world could go to in order to be component of the California Gold Rush. In enhancement to the men through picks and shovels trying to reach the ship from the dock, airships and also rocket are presented flying overhead. (credit: Library of Congress)
Once in California, gathered in camps via names favor Drunkard’s Bar, Angel’s Camp, Gouge Eye, and Whiskeytown, the “forty-niners” did not discover wide range so basic to come by as they had initially imagined. Although some were able to discover gold by panning for it or shoveling soil from river bottoms into sieve-prefer contraptions dubbed rockers, most did not. The placer gold, the gold that had actually been washed dvery own the hills into streams and rivers, was conveniently worn down, and what remained was deep listed below ground. Independent miners were supplanted by suppliers that might afford not just to purchase hydraulic mining technology yet additionally to hire laborers to work-related the hills. The frustration of many a miner was expressed in the words of Sullivan Osborne. In 1857, Osborne created that he had arrived in The golden state “complete of high wishes and bideal anticipations of the future” only to find his desires “have actually lengthy considering that periburned.” Although $550 million worth of gold was found in The golden state between 1849 and 1850, exceptionally little bit of it visited individuals.

Observers in the gold fields likewise reported abusage of Indians by miners. Some miners compelled Indians to occupational their claims for them; others drove Indians off their lands, stole from them, and also murdered them. Foreigners were generally dispreferred, specifically those from South America. The a lot of despised, yet, were the hundreds of Chinese migrants. Eager to earn money to sfinish to their family members in Hong Kong and also southerly China, they quickly earned a reputation as frugal males and tough workers that frequently took over diggings others had abandoned as worthless and operated them until eexceptionally scrap of gold had been uncovered. Many type of Amerihave the right to miners, often spendthrifts, resented their visibility and discriminated versus them, believing the Chinese, who stood for about 8 percent of the practically 300,000 that arrived, were depriving them of the chance to make a living.


Visit The Chinese in California to learn even more about the suffer of Chinese migrants who came to The golden state in the Gold Rush era.


In 1850, California implemented a tax on foreign miners, and in 1858 it prohibited all immigration from China. Those Chinese that remained in the face of the growing hostility were regularly bconsumed and killed, and also some Westerners made a sport of cutting off Chinese men’s queues, the lengthy braids of hair worn down their backs ((Figure)). In 1882, Congress took up the power to restrict immigration by banning the better immigration of Chinese.


“Pacific Chivalry: Encouragement to Chinese Immigration,” which appeared in Harper’s Weekly in 1869, depicts a white man attacking a Chinese guy with a whip as he holds him by the queue. Americans sometimes forcetotally reduced off the queues of Chinese immigrants. This could have actually serious aftermath for the victim. Until 1911, all Chinese guys were required by their nation’s legislation to wear the queue as a sign of loyalty. Miners returning to China without it can be put to death. (credit: Library of Congress)
As people flocked to The golden state in 1849, the population of the new area swelled from a few thousand to about 100,000. The brand-new arrivals conveniently organized themselves right into communities, and the trappings of “civilized” life—stores, saloons, libraries, stage lines, and also fraternal lodges—started to appear. Newspapers were establimelted, and musicians, singers, and also acting companies arrived to entertain the gold seekers. The epitome of these Gold Rush boomtowns was San Francisco, which counted only a couple of hundred citizens in 1846 yet by 1850 had actually reached a populace of thirty-4 thousand also ((Figure)). So conveniently did the region grow that by 1850 The golden state was ready to enter the Union as a state. When it sought admission, however, the problem of slaexceptionally growth and sectional tensions emerged once aget.

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This daguerreotype mirrors the bustling port of San Francisco in January 1851, simply a couple of months after San Francisco ended up being component of the brand-new UNITED STATE state of California. (credit: Library of Congress)

Section Summary

President James K. Polk’s administration was a period of extensive development for the USA. After overseeing the final details concerning the annexation of Texas from Mexico, Polk negotiated a peaceful settlement with Great Britain regarding ownership of the Oregon Counattempt, which carried the USA what are currently the claims of Washington and also Oregon. The acquisition of extra lands from Mexico, a nation many in the USA regarded as weak and inferior, was not so bloodless. The Mexihave the right to Cession included almost fifty percent of Mexico’s territory to the United States, consisting of New Mexico and California, and establimelted the U.S.-Mexico border at the Rio Grande. The The golden state Gold Rush quickly broadened the populace of the brand-new territory, but additionally prompted comes to over immigration, particularly from China.