1) If a horticulturist breeding gardenias succeeds in having actually a solitary plant v a an especially desirable collection of traits, which of the complying with would be her most probable and efficient course to establishing a line of such plants? A) Backtrack v her previous experiments to obtain one more plant v the exact same traits.

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B) breed this tree with one more plant with much weaker traits

C) Clone the plant. D) force the tree to self-pollinate to achieve an identical one.


2) i beg your pardon of the following defines a genome? A) the complete collection of one organism"s polypeptides B) the complete set of a species" polypeptides C) a karyotype D) the complete collection of one organism"s genes and also other DNA sequences


3) Asexual reproduction occurs during _____. A) meiosis B) mitosis C) fertilization

D) chromosome exchange between organisms of different species


4) Quaking aspen deserve to send the end underground stems for asexual reproduction. Sex-related reproduction is not as common, yet when it does happen, the haploid gametes have 19 chromosomes. How numerous chromosomes room in the cells of the secret stems? A) 9

B) 10 C) 19 D) 38


5) i beg your pardon of the following is a true statement about sexual vs. Asexual reproduction? A) Asexual reproduction, but not sex-related reproduction, is characteristic of plants and fungi.

B) In sex-related reproduction, individuals transmit fifty percent of their nuclear genes to each of their offspring. C) In asexual reproduction, offspring are created by fertilization without meiosis. D) Asexual reproduction produces just haploid offspring


6) in ~ which stage of mitosis space chromosomes typically photographed in the ready of a karyotype? A) prophase B) metaphase

C) anaphase D) interphase


7) i m sorry of the complying with is true of a varieties that has actually a chromosome variety of 2n = 16?

A) The varieties is diploid v 32 chromosomes per cell. B) The types has 16 to adjust of chromosomes every cell. C) each diploid cell has eight homologous pairs.

D) A gamete from this varieties has 4 chromosomes.


8) Eukaryotic sex-related life cycles present tremendous variation. That the adhering to elements, which carry out all sexual life cycles have in common? I. Alternation the generations II. Meiosis

III. Fertilization IV. Gametes V. Spores A) I, II, and also IV B) II, III, and IV C) II, IV, and also V D) I, II, III, IV, and V


9) In a plant"s sex-related life bike _____. A) sporophytes produce gametes through meiosis B) gametophytes create gametes by mitosis C) gametophytes create gametes through meiosis D) sporophytes produce gametes through mitosis


10) i m sorry of the adhering to is an example of alternation that generations? A) A grandparent and also grandchild each have actually dark hair, but the parent has blond hair. B) A diploid plant (sporophyte) produces, by meiosis, a spore that gives rise to a multicellular, haploid pollen grain (gametophyte). C) A diploid pet produces gametes by meiosis, and also the gametes experience fertilization to develop a diploid zygote. D) A haploid mushroom produces gametes by mitosis, and also the gametes undergo fertilization, i beg your pardon is automatically followed by meiosis.


11) A given organism has 46 chromosomes in that karyotype. Therefore, we deserve to conclude the it must _____. A) be human B) be an animal

C) reproduce sexually D) have gametes through 23 chromosomes


12) A triploid cell has sets of three homologous chromosomes. If a cell of a commonly diploid types with 42 chromosomes per cell is triploid, this cell would certainly be expected to have which of the following?

A) 63 chromosomes in 31.5 pairs

B) 63 chromosomes in 21 to adjust of 3 C) 63 chromosomes, each with 3 chromatids D) 21 chromosome pairs and 21 unique chromosomes


13) which of the following might result in a human being zygote through 45 chromosomes? A) an error in one of two people egg or sperm meiotic anaphase B) fail of the egg nucleus to be fertilized by the sperm C) fail of an egg to complete meiosis II

D) incomplete cytokinesis throughout spermatogenesis ~ meiosis I


14) In a human being karyotype, chromosomes room arranged in 23 pairs. If we pick one of these pairs, such together pair 14, which of the complying with do the two chromosomes the the pair have in common? A) length and also position of the centromere only

B) length, centromere position, and also staining pattern just C) length, centromere position, staining pattern, and traits coded for by their genes D) They have actually nothing in common except that they room X-shaped.


18) In a life cycle such as that shown in component III of the number above, if the zygote"s chromosome number is 10, which of the complying with will it is in true? A) The sporophyte"s chromosome number every cell is 10 and the gametophyte"s is 5. B) The sporophyte"s chromosome number every cell is 5 and also the gametophyte"s is 10.

C) The sporophyte and gametophyte each have actually 10 chromosomes every cell.

D) The sporophyte and also gametophyte each have actually 5 chromosomes per cell.


19) Homologous chromosomes _____.

A) space identical

B) carry information for the same traits

C) bring the very same alleles

D) align on the metaphase key in meiosis II


20) If meiosis produce haploid cells, exactly how is the diploid number restored for those organisms the spend many of their life bicycle in the diploid state? A) DNA replication B) reverse transcription

C) synapsis D) fertilization


21) The human X and Y chromosomes _____. A) space both current in every somatic cell of males and females

B) are the exact same size and have the same variety of genes C) include genes that recognize an individual"s sex D) are dubbed autosomes


22) i beg your pardon of these is a karyotype? A) a screen of every one of the cell varieties in one organism

B) organized pictures of a cell chromosomes C) the figure of an biology D) a display of a cell’s mitotic stages


23) If a cell has actually completed meiosis I and is just beginning meiosis II, i beg your pardon of the complying with is an ideal description the its contents? A) the has fifty percent the lot of DNA together the cell that started meiosis. B) it has half the chromosomes however twice the DNA that the originating cell.

C) It has one-fourth the DNA and also one-half the chromosomes as the originating cell.

D) the is similar in contents to one more cell created from the exact same meiosis i event.


24) The somatic cell of a privet shrub each contain 46 chromosomes. Exactly how do privet chromosomes differ from the chromosomes of human beings ,who likewise have 46? A) Privet cell cannot reproduce sexually. B) Privet sex cells have actually chromosomes that can synapse with person chromosomes in the laboratory.

C) genes of privet chromosomes are significantly different than those in humans.

D) Privet shrubs have to be metabolically more like pets than like other shrubs.


25) after ~ telophase i of meiosis, the chromosomal makeup of each daughter cell is _____.

A) diploid, and also the chromosomes space each created of a single chromatid B) diploid, and the chromosomes space each created of two chromatids C) haploid, and the chromosomes space each written of a solitary chromatid

D) haploid, and the chromosomes room each composed of two chromatids


26) exactly how do cell at the completion of meiosis compare v cells that are in prophase that meiosis I? They have actually _____. A) half the variety of chromosomes and half the lot of DNA. B) the same variety of chromosomes and half the lot of DNA.

C) half the variety of chromosomes and also one-fourth the lot of DNA.

D) half the lot of cytoplasm and twice the lot of DNA.


27) which of the complying with happens at the conclusion that meiosis I?

A) Homologous chromosomes the a pair are separated from each other.

B) The chromosome number every cell remains the same. C) sister chromatids space separated. D) 4 daughter cells are formed.


28) sister chromatids separate from every other throughout _____.

A) meiosis I just B) meiosis II only C) mitosis and also meiosis I

D) mitosis and also meiosis II


29) i beg your pardon of the adhering to occurs in meiosis but not in mitosis?

A) chromosome replication B) synapsis the chromosomes C) alignment that chromosomes in ~ the equator

D) condensation that chromosomes


30) when we first see chiasmata under a microscope, we know that _____.

A) meiosis II has developed B) anaphase II has developed C) prophase i is occurring

D) separation of homologs has actually occurred


For the following questions, complement the key event that meiosis with the stages provided below.

I. Prophase ns II.Metaphase I

III. Anaphase i IV. TelophaseI

V. Prophase II VI. Metaphase II

VII. Anaphase II VIII.TelophaseII

31) Homologous chromosomes are aligned at the equator the the spindle.

A) ns B) II C) IV

D) VI


For the following questions, match the an essential event that meiosis v the stages provided below.

I. Prophase i II.Metaphase I

III. Anaphase ns IV. TelophaseI

V. Prophase II VI. Metaphase II

VII. Anaphase II VIII.TelophaseII

32) Centromeres the sister chromatids disjoin and also chromatids separate.

A) III B) IV C) V

D) VII


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38) A details female"s number 12 chromosomes both have actually the blue gene and number 19 chromosomes both have actually the long gene. As cells in her ovaries experience meiosis, she resulting eggs (ova) may have actually which that the following? A) either 2 number 12 chromosomes v blue genes or two with orange genes

B) either 2 number 19 chromosomes with long genes or two with short genes C) one of two people one blue or one orange gene in addition to either one lengthy or one quick gene

D) one chromosome 12 with one blue gene and one chromosome 19 v one long gene


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39) If a mrs of this varieties has one chromosome 12 with a blue gene and also another chromosome 12 with an orange gene, and has both number 19 chromosomes with quick genes, she will produce which that the complying with egg types? A) just blue brief gene eggs

B) only orange brief gene eggs C) one-half blue short and one-half orange short gene egg D) three-fourths blue short and also one-fourth orange quick gene eggs


*

40) A female with a paternal collection of one orange and one lengthy gene chromosome and a maternal set comprised the one blue and one quick gene chromosome is supposed to produce which of the following varieties of eggs after meiosis? A) all eggs will have actually maternal varieties of gene combinations.

B) all eggs will have paternal species of gene combinations. C) fifty percent the egg will have maternal and half will have actually paternal combinations. D) every egg has actually a one-fourth possibility of having actually either blue long, blue short, orange long, or orange brief combinations.


41) Somatic cells of roundworms have four individual chromosomes per cell. How many chromosomes would you intend to find in an ovum native a roundworm? A) 4 B) two

C) eight D) a diploid number


42) i m sorry of the adhering to can happen by the procedure of meiosis however not mitosis?

A) Haploid cells fuse to form diploid cells. B) Haploid cells multiply into much more haploid cells. C) Diploid cells type haploid cells.

D) A diploid cell combines through a haploid cell.


43) In meiosis, homologous chromosomes are separated throughout _____.

A) anaphase II B) prophase i C) mitosis

D) anaphase I


44) What is a significant difference between meiosis II and also mitosis in a diploid animal?

A) Homologues align ~ above the metaphase bowl in meiosis II. B) sisters chromatids separate in mitosis, and also homologues separate in meiosis II.

C) Meiosis II occurs in a haploid cell, while mitosis wake up in diploid cells.

D) Crossover takes place in meiosis II.


45) What is a significant difference between mitosis and also meiosis ns in a diploid organism? A) sisters chromatids separate in mitosis, if homologous bag of chromosomes separate in meiosis I. B) sisters chromatids separate in mitosis, if homologous pairs of chromosomes different in meiosis II. C) DNA replication takes ar prior come mitosis, yet not prior to meiosis I. D) just meiosis I results in daughter cells the contain identical hereditary information.


46) cross over generally takes place during which of the complying with processes?

A) meiosis II B) meiosis ns C) mitosis

D) mitosis and also meiosis II


47) because that the term of meiosis I, each chromosome _____.

A) is paired through a homologous chromosome B) is composed of two sister chromatids join by a centromere

C) is composed of a single strand that DNA

D) is joined with its homologous pair to type a synaptonemal complex


48) Homologous pairs of chromosomes align the opposite of each other at the equator that a cell during _____. A) mitosis metaphase B) meiosis metaphase I

C) meiosis telophase II D) meiosis metaphase II


49) Centromeres split and also sister chromatids move to the opposite poles in meiosis _____.

A) anaphase ns B) telophase i C) anaphase II

D) telophase II


50) Quaking aspen deserve to send out underground stems for asexual reproduction. Sex-related reproduction is not as common, yet when that does happen, the haploid gametes have 19 chromosomes. How numerous chromosomes are in the cell of the secret stems?

A) 9

B) 10 C) 19 D) 38


51) independent assortment the chromosomes occurs during _____

A) meiosis I just B) meiosis II just C) mitosis and also meiosis I

D) mitosis and also meiosis II


52) because that a types with a haploid variety of 23 chromosomes, how countless different combine of maternal and paternal chromosomes are possible for the gametes? A) 23 B) 46

C) about 1000 D) around 8 million


53) live independence assortment the chromosomes is a an outcome of _____. A) the random means each pair of homologous chromosomes present up at the metaphase plate during meiosis ns B) the arbitrarily combinations of eggs and also sperm during fertilization C) the random circulation of the sister chromatids come the 2 daughter cells throughout anaphase II

D) the diverse mix of alleles that might be found within any kind of given chromosome


54) as soon as homologous chromosomes cross over, what occurs? A) 2 chromatids gain tangled, resulting in one re-sequencing the DNA. B) 2 sister chromatids exchange similar pieces that DNA. C) matching segments that non-sister chromatids space exchanged. D) Maternal alleles room "corrected" to be choose paternal alleles and also vice versa.


55) how is natural selection related to sex-related reproduction as opposed to asexual reproduction?

A) sexual reproduction outcomes in many brand-new gene combinations, some of which will lead to differential reproduction. B) sex-related reproduction results in the greatest number of new mutations.

C) sexual reproduction allows the greatest number of offspring to be produced.

D) sex-related reproduction utilizes much less energy than asexual reproduction.


56) The diploid number of a roundworm varieties is 4. Assuming there is no crossover, and random segregation of homologues during meiosis, how numerous different feasible combinations the chromosomes might there it is in in the offspring (not including selection generated by crossing over)?

A) 4 B) 8 C) 16 D) 64


57) The bulldog ant has a diploid variety of two chromosomes. Therefore, following meiosis, each daughter cell will have actually a solitary chromosome. Diversity in this species may be created by mutations and also _____. A) crossing over

B) elevation assortment C) cross over and also independent assortment D) nothing else


58) The fastest means for biology to adapt to a an altering environment requires _____.

A) mutation B) asexual reproduction C) sex-related reproduction


59) Imagine the there space twenty-five different varieties of protists life in a birds pool. Several of these types reproduce both sexually and asexually, and also some of them deserve to reproduce only asexually. The pool slowly becomes infested v disease-causing viruses and also bacteria. Which species are an ext likely to grow in the an altering environment?

A) the sexually reproducing varieties B) the asexually reproducing species C) Sexually and asexually reproducing varieties are equally most likely to thrive.


60) In eukaryotes, hereditary information is passed come the next generation by processes that incorporate mitosis or meiosis. Which of the explanations identifies the correct process and support the case that heritable info is passed from one generation come another? A) throughout mitosis, DNA replication occurs double within the cabinet cycle to insure a full set of chromosomes within each of the daughter cell produced.

B) Mitosis, complied with by cytokinesis, produces daughter cell that space genetically various from the parental cell, thus insuring variation within the population. C) In asexual reproduction, a single individual is the single parent and passes copies of its genes to its offspring there is no the blend of gametes.

D) Single-celled organisms can fuse your cells, reproducing asexually through mitosis to form new cells that room not similar to the parental cell.


61) hereditary variation leads to genetic diversity in populations and also is the raw product for evolution. Biological systems have actually multiple processes, such together reproduction, that impact genetic variation. They space evolutionarily conserved and also shared by various organisms.

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Which statement ideal represents the connection between reproduction and evolution? A) Plants that use sexual reproduction space rare since this type of reproduction in tree does not contribute to hereditary diversity. B) In order to increase hereditary diversity for evolution in sexually reproducing organisms, mutations must occur in the zygote ~ fertilization. C) because prokaryotic biology reproduce asexually, there is no mechanism for lock to include genetic diversity for evolution. D) sex-related reproduction increases hereditary variation since random mutations deserve to be shuffled between organisms.