Digestion starts with the sight, assumed, or smell of food. When the brain anticipates an incoming meal, the vagus nerve sends out a message to the stomach bring about the release of acetylcholine. The binding of acetylcholine to G cells in the stomach starts the secretion of gastrin and also, in combicountry through acetylcholine andhistamine, stimulates parietal cells in the gastric glands of the stomach body to begin secreting hydrochloric acid (HCl).

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Acid in the stomach serves several functions but is greatly connected with degrading proteins and polysaccharides so they can cross the intestinal epithelium. Approximately 2 L of HCl is produced day-to-day. The pH level in the stomach varieties from 1.5 to 3, depending upon components such as food intake, stress, and drugs or supplements.1An boost in HCl and decreasing pH level likewise signal gastric motility to turn on to move the partially digested bolus of food alengthy and also aid kill bacteria usually ingested through food. The pH of the stomach is regulated by an unfavorable feedearlier loop by antral D cells that release somatostatin which inhibits the release of gastrin.2As food moves out of the stomach, the H+ concentration increases which also serves to inhibit HCl secretion.1

Hydrochloric acid contributes to protein digestion by giving H+ which activates pepsinogen, the precursor to pepsin. Pepsinogen is secreted by chief cells in the gastric glands of the body and antrum of the stomach. Proteins are decreased to fragments of various sizes, referred to as peptides, or amino acids, by pepsin so they deserve to inevitably be absorbed in the little intestine. This increase in peptides and also amino acids, along with distention from food, additionally increases HCl secretion. Without sufficient HCl secretion, larger fragments of proteins enter the little intestine and may deteriorate the efficacy of digestive procedures. Stress may influence HCl secretion as enhanced parasympathetic task to the stomach’s enteric nervous system stimulates the release of acetylcholine, gastrin, and also histamine.1.


Widmaier EP, Raff H, Strang KT.Vander"s Human Physiology: the Mechanisms of Body Function. Boston: McGraw-Hill; 2006. Summary of Acid Secretion. Merck Manuals Professional Edition. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gastrointestinal-disorders/gastritis-and-peptic-ulcer-disease/overview-of-acid-secretion. Accessed June 27, 2016.

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