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Date:c. 1890 - c. 1950...(Show more)Significant Works:The garbage LandFinnegans WakeFour QuartetsAbsalom, Absalom!The Love song of J. Alfred Prufrock...(Show more)Related Artists:Virginia WoolfT.S. EliotWilliam FaulknerJoseph ConradJames Joyce...(Show more)

In literature, intuitive art, architecture, dance, and also music, Modernism was a break v the past and the concurrent search for new forms that expression. Modernism fostered a duration of trial and error in the arts native the so late 19th to the mid-20th century, an especially in the years following people War I.

All the art sought one authentic response to the industrialization and urbanization the the so late 19th century. In literature, Modernist writers such together Henry James and Virginia Woolf actors off classic continuity, use stream-of-consciousness narration instead. Artist such together Édouard Manet damaged from inherited notions that perspective and modeling. Architects sought distinct forms for new technologies. Choreographers rebelled against both balletic and interpretive traditions, and composers offered untried ideologies to tonality.

Scholars imply that Modernism ended sometime after people War II, in between the 1950s and also 1960s. There were discernible move in all the arts: authors turned come irony and also self-awareness; intuitive artists concentrated on the procedure rather 보다 the finished product; postmodern architects provided decoration because that the sake of decoration; choreographers changed conventional dance measures with simple movements, including rolling, walking, and also skipping; and also composers jettisoned such timeless formal qualities as harmony, tempo, and also melody.

Modernism, in the well arts, a break v the past and also the concurrent find for new forms that expression. Modernism fostered a duration of trial and error in the arts native the so late 19th come the mid-20th century, an especially in the years following civilization War I.

In one era characterized by industrialization, the nearly an international adoption the capitalism, fast social change, and advances in science and also the social scientific researches (e.g., Freudian theory), Modernists felt a growing alienation incompatible with Victorian morality, optimism, and also convention. New ideas in psychology, philosophy, and political theory kindled a search for brand-new modes the expression.

Modernism in literature

The Modernist advertise is fueled in assorted literatures by industrialization and also urbanization and also by the find for an authentic response to a much-changed world. Although prewar functions by Henry James, Joseph Conrad, and other writers are thought about Modernist, Modernism as a literary activity is typically connected with the duration after world War I. The enormity the the war had undermined humankind’s confidence in the structures of Western culture and culture, and also postwar Modernist literature reflected a sense of disillusionment and also fragmentation. A primary theme that T.S. Eliot’s lengthy poem The rubbish Land (1922), a seminal Modernist work, is the search for redemption and renewal in a sterile and spiritually empty landscape. With its fragmentary images and also obscure allusions, the city is usual of Modernism in inquiry the leader to take it an active duty in interpreting the text.

Eliot’s was not the leading voice amongst Modernist poets. In the United claims Robert Frost and Carl Sandburg evocatively described the regions—New England and also the Midwest, respectively—in which lock lived. The Harlem Renaissance created a wealthy coterie that poets, amongst them Countee Cullen, Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, and also Alice Dunbar Nelson. Harriet Monroe established Poetry magazine in Chicago in 1912 and also made that the most necessary organ for poetry not simply in the unified States yet for the English-speaking world. Throughout the 1920s Edna St. Vincent Millay, Marianne Moore, and E.E. Cummings expressed a heart of change and testing in your poetry.

A feeling of disillusionment and also loss pervades much American Modernist fiction. That sense may be centred on specific individuals, or it may be directed toward American society or toward human being generally. It may generate a nihilistic, terrible impulse, or it may express expect at the prospect of change. F. Scott Fitzgerald skewered the American Dream in The great Gatsby (1925), Richard bright exposed and attacked American racism in Native Son (1940), Zora Neale Hurston told the story the a black woman’s three marriages in Their eye Were watching God (1937), and also Ernest Hemingway’s early on novels The Sun likewise Rises (1926) and A Farewell come Arms (1929) articulated the disillusionment that the lost Generation. Meanwhile, Willa Cather told optimistic stories the the American frontier, set mostly ~ above the an excellent Plains, in O Pioneers! (1913) and also My Ántonia (1918), john Steinbeck shown the challenging lives that migrant employees in Of Mice and also Men (1937) and also The Grapes the Wrath (1939), and also William Faulkner used stream-of-consciousness monologues and other formal techniques to break from past literary exercise in The Sound and also the Fury (1929).

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Across the Atlantic, the publishing of the ireland writer James Joyce’s Ulysses in 1922 was a landmark event in the advancement of Modernist literature. Dense, lengthy, and controversial, the novel details the events of at some point in the life of three Dubliners with a technique known together stream that consciousness, which commonly ignores orderly sentence structure and incorporates pieces of believed in an attempt to record the circulation of characters’ psychological processes. Sections of the publication were thought about obscene, and also Ulysses was banned for countless years in English-speaking countries. Other European Modernist authors whose functions rejected chronological and also narrative continuity contained Virginia Woolf, Marcel Proust, and the American expatriate Gertrude Stein.


New York World-Telegram & sunlight Collection/Library the Congress, Washington, D.C. (neg. No. LC-USZ62-111438)

The term Modernism is additionally used to refer to literary motions other than the European and American motion of the early to mid-20th century. In Latin American literature, Modernismo occurred in the so late 19th century in the functions of Manuel Gutiérrez Nájera and also José Martí. The movement, which ongoing into the early 20th century, got to its peak in the city of Rubén Darío. (See also American literature; Latin American literature.)