The team 16 elements, likewise known together the chalcogens have 6 valence electrons, and hence they can achieve noble gas construction either by acquiring 2 electrons or through sharing 2 electrons i.e., by developing M2- ions, or developing two covalent bonds. The oxidation state of aspects is defined as the variety of electrons gained or lost to form a bond and its sign is the indication of ionic fee on the element. Oxygen is the many electronegative element after fluorine. The distinction in electronegativity between metals and also oxygen is generally an extremely high. We know that ionic shortcut is developed when the distinction in electronegativity of any two facets is an extremely high. Thus, metals and oxygen combine to type a metal oxide through oxygen attaining O2- form, so the oxidation state of oxygen is mainly (-II).

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Electronegativity of chalcogens decreases under the group in the routine table. Other chalcogen facets like sulphur, selenium, and tellurium react with a much more electronegative element of group 1, 2 and also lanthanides i.e., the uppermost facets of group 1, 2 and also lanthanides to type sulphides, selenides, and also tellurides. This compounds room the most stable compounds created by these elements. Compound formed above can be denoted together S2-, Se2-, and Te2-. The electronegativity difference in between the compounds (sulphides, selenides, and also tellurides) reflects that they are on the borderline of 50% ionic and 50% covalent characters as in the instance of PCl5. Phosphorus pentachloride is periodically covalent in the heavy state but is ionic in the aqueous state.

The chalcogen group can additionally share their 2 electrons with an additional element to type two covalent bonds for instance \(H_2O, F_2O, Cl_2O, H_2S ~and ~SCl_2\). In the given examples the chalcogen elements have the least electronegativity. Together we have the right to see in the case of \(SCl_2\) (the electronegativity of chlorine = 3.5 and also sulphur =2.5) and also the oxidation state of sulphur is (+II).

Electronic configuration and also Oxidation claims (Unstable claims are written in parentheses)
ElementConfigurationOxidation States
O2s2 2p4-II, (-I)
S3s2 3p4-II, (II), IV, VI
Se3d10 4s2 4p4(-II), II, IV, VI
Te4d10 5s2 5p4II, IV, VI
Po4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4II, IV

Oxygen and sulphur have only s and p electrons, vice versa, the Se, Te, and Po have actually d electrons. The pour it until it is full of d shell makes the atom smaller and hence the electrons are tightly packed. As such reason, Se cannot obtain the highest possible oxidation state the (+VI). Whenever, S is oxidized through \(HNO_3\) to kind \(H_2SO_4\) (S +VI) yet Se is oxidized by \( HNO_3\) to type \(H_2SeO_3\) (Se +IV). Some aspects of group 16 like S, Se, and also Te can achieve oxidation claims of IV and also VI, i beg your pardon is much more stable than the +II state. This is simply the quick layout the oxidation says of team 16 elements.

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