describe the five typical international-expansion entrance modes.know the benefits and disadvantages of every entry mode.understand the dynamics amongst the selection of different entry modes.

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The Five usual International-Expansion entry Modes

What is the best means to go into a new market? should a company an initial establish an export base or patent its commodities to gain experience in a freshly targeted country or region? Or does the potential connected with first-mover status justify a bolder move such as entering an alliance, do an acquisition, or even beginning a brand-new subsidiary? countless companies relocate from exporting to license to a greater investment strategy, in effect treating these options as a discovering curve. Each has distinct benefits and disadvantages. In this section, us will explore the classic international-expansion entry modes. Beyond importing, international development is accomplished through exporting, licensing arrangements, partnering and strategic alliances, acquisitions, and establishing new, wholly own subsidiaries, additionally known as greenfield ventures. These settings of entering global markets and their features are presented in Table 7.1 “International-Expansion entrance Modes”.1 Each mode of market entry has benefits and disadvantages. Firms have to evaluate their alternatives to pick the entry mode that best suits your strategy and also goals.

Table 7.1 International-Expansion entry Modes

Type the EntryAdvantagesDisadvantages
ExportingFast entry, short riskLow control, low regional knowledge, potential an unfavorable environmental influence of transportation
Licensing and FranchisingFast entry, short cost, low riskLess control, licensee may become a competitor, legal and also regulatory environment (IP and contract law) must be sound
Partnering and also Strategic AllianceShared costs reduce invest needed, diminished risk, viewed as neighborhood entityHigher cost than exporting, licensing, or franchising; integration problems in between two corporate cultures
AcquisitionFast entry; known, created operationsHigh cost, integration worries with residence office
Greenfield venture (Launch that a new, wholly own subsidiary)Gain local sector knowledge; have the right to be viewed as insider who employs locals; preferably controlHigh cost, high risk because of unknowns, slow-moving entry because of setup time


Exporting is the marketing and also direct sale of domestically created goods in an additional country. Exporting is a traditional and also well-established method of reaching international markets. Because it does not need that the products be produced in the target country, no invest in foreign production framework is required. Most of the costs linked with exporting take it the form of marketing expenses.

While reasonably low risk, exporting entails an extensive costs and restricted control. Exporters generally have tiny control over the marketing and also distribution of your products, face high transport charges and feasible tariffs, and must pay distributors for a selection of services. What is more, exporting does not offer a agency firsthand suffer in staking the end a competitive position abroad, and it renders it an overwhelming to customize products and services to neighborhood tastes and also preferences.

Exporting is a frequently the easiest way to get in an worldwide market, and therefore most firms begin their international growth using this design of entry. Exporting is the sale of products and services in foreign countries that space sourced native the house country. The advantage of this setting of entry is the firms avoid the price of developing operations in the brand-new country. That company must, however, have actually a method to distribute and also market their commodities in the brand-new country, which they frequently do with contractual agreements through a local firm or distributor. As soon as exporting, the for sure must give thought to labeling, packaging, and pricing the offering appropriately for the market. In terms of marketing and promotion, the certain will should let potential buyers understand of that is offerings, it is in it v advertising, profession shows, or a neighborhood sales force.

Amusing Anecdotes

One common factor in exporting is the need to interpret something about a product or business into the language that the target country. This requirement may be pushed by neighborhood regulations or by the company’s great to market the product or business in a locally friendly fashion. When this might seem to it is in a straightforward task, it’s often a source of embarrassment for the agency and feeling for competitors. David Ricks’s publication on international service blunders relates the complying with anecdote because that US suppliers doing company in the neighboring French-speaking Canadian province of Quebec. A agency boasted of lait frais usage, which translates to “used new milk,” once it expected to brag of lait frais employé, or “fresh milk used.” The “terrific” pens offered by another firm were instead promoted as terrifiantes, or terrifying. In an additional example, a firm intending to say that its appliance might use “any kind of electric current,” actually declared that the appliance “wore out any type of kind the liquid.” and imagine just how one agency felt when its product come “reduce heartburn” to be advertised as one that diminished “the warm of heart”!2

Among the flaw of exporting space the expenses of transporting items to the country, which deserve to be high and can have a an adverse impact on the environment. In addition, some countries impose tariffs on incoming goods, i beg your pardon will affect the firm’s profits. In addition, firms that market and distribute assets through a contractual covenant have less control over those to work and, naturally, must pay their distribution partner a fee because that those services.

Ethics in Action

Companies are beginning to think about the environmental influence of whereby they situate their manufacturing facilities. For example, Olam International, a cashew producer, originally shipped nuts get an impressive in Africa to Asia for processing. Now, however, Olam has opened handling plants in Tanzania, Mozambique, and also Nigeria. These areas are close to whereby the nuts room grown. The result? Olam has actually lowered the processing and shipping prices by 25 percent while considerably reducing carbon emissions.3

Likewise, as soon as Walmart start a new market, it seeks to source produce for its food part from local farms that are near its warehouses. Walmart has learned that the to save it it s okay from lower transportation costs and also the benefit of gift able come restock in smaller sized quantities more than counter the reduced prices that was gaining from industrial ranches located furthermore away. This exercise is likewise a win-win because that locals, who have the chance to offer to Walmart, which can increase their profits and also let castle grow and also hire much more people and also pay far better wages. This, in turn, helps every the companies in the neighborhood community.4

Firms export mostly to nations that space close to their facilities because of the lower transportation costs and the frequently greater similarity in between geographic neighbors. For example, Mexico accounts for 40 percent that the products exported native Texas.5 The net has likewise made exporting easier. Even tiny firms deserve to access crucial information about foreign markets, examine a target market, research the competition, and create lists of potential customers. Even using for export and also import patent is becoming easier as more governments use the internet to facilitate these processes.

Because the price of exporting is lower than that of the various other entry modes, business man and tiny businesses room most most likely to usage exporting as a method to acquire their assets into markets about the globe. Also with exporting, that company still face the challenges of money exchange rates. While larger firms have specialists that manage the exchange rates, small businesses rarely have actually this expertise. One factor that has actually helped mitigate the number of currencies the firms must deal with was the development of the european Union (EU) and the move to a solitary currency, the euro, for the very first time. As of 2011, seventeen that the twenty-seven EU members use the euro, giving businesses access to 331 million world with that single currency.6

Licensing and Franchising

Licensing essentially patent a firm in the target nation to usage the home of the licensor. Such building is commonly intangible, such as trademarks, patents, and production techniques. The licensee pays a dues in exchange because that the rights to usage the intangible property and possibly for technical assistance as well.

Because small investment top top the component of the licensor is required, licensing has the potential to provide a very huge return on investment. However, due to the fact that the licensee produces and markets the product, potential return from manufacturing and also marketing tasks may be lost. Thus, licensing reduces cost and involves limited risk. However, it does not mitigate the substantial disadvantages connected with operation from a distance. As a rule, licensing methods inhibit control and produce just moderate returns.

Another popular method to increase overseas is to sell franchises. Under an international franchise agreement, a agency (the franchiser) sponsor a foreign agency (the franchisee) the right to use its brand name and also to offer its products or services. The franchisee is responsible for all operations however agrees to operate according come a organization model created by the franchiser. In turn, the franchiser usually offers advertising, training, and also new-product assistance. Franchising is a natural type of worldwide expansion for companies that run domestically follow to a franchise model, including restaurant chains, such as McDonald’s and Kentucky Fried Chicken, and also hotel chains, such together Holiday Inn and Best Western.

Contract Manufacturing and Outsourcing

Because that high domestic labor costs, plenty of U.S. Carriers manufacture their commodities in countries where labor costs are lower. This plan is called international contract manufacturing or outsourcing. A U.S. Firm might contract with a local firm in a foreign country to manufacture one of its products. It will, however, retain control of product architecture and advance and put its very own label on the perfect product. Contract production is quite typical in the U.S. Apparel business, with most American brands being made in a number of Asian countries, including China, Vietnam, Indonesia, and also India.<4>

Thanks come twenty-first-century details technology, nonmanufacturing functions can also be outsourced to countries with lower labor costs. U.S. Providers increasingly draw on a huge supply of fairly inexpensive professional labor to execute various organization services, such as software application development, accounting, and also claims processing. For years, American insurance money companies have processed lot of your claims-related paperwork in Ireland. Through a large, well-educated population with English language skills, India has end up being a center for software development and customer-call centers for American companies. In the instance of India, together you can see in Table 7.1 “Selected Hourly Wages, joined States and India” , the attraction is not just a big pool of understanding workers but also significantly reduced wages.

Table 7.1 Selected Hourly Wages, joined States and India

OccupationU.S. Wage every Hour (per year)Indian Wage per Hour (per year)
Middle-level manager$29.40 per hour ($60,000 per year)$6.30 every hour ($13,000 per year)
Information an innovation specialist$35.10 per hour ($72,000 every year)$7.50 every hour ($15,000 every year)
Manual worker$13.00 every hour ($27,000 every year)$2.20 per hour ($5,000 every year)

Source: Data acquired from “Huge wage Gaps because that the very same Work between Countries – June 2011,”, (Links come an exterior site.)Links to an exterior site.(accessed September 20, 2011).

Partnerships and also Strategic Alliances

Another way to get in a brand-new market is through a strategy alliance v a neighborhood partner. A strategic alliance involves a contractual agreement in between two or an ext enterprises stipulating that the involved parties will cooperate in a certain method for a certain time to achieve a common purpose. To identify if the alliance method is suitable for the firm, the firm need to decide what value the partner could bring to the undertaking in regards to both tangible and also intangible aspects. The advantages of partnering v a local firm space that the regional firm likely understands the neighborhood culture, market, and ways of doing business better than an external firm. Partners room especially beneficial if they have actually a recognized, trusted brand name in the country or have existing relationships v customers that the firm can want to access. Because that example, Cisco created a strategic alliance with Fujitsu to develop routers because that Japan. In the alliance, Cisco decided to co-brand v the Fujitsu surname so that it might leverage Fujitsu’s reputation in Japan for IT equipment and solutions while still retaining the Cisco name to benefit from Cisco’s global reputation for switches and routers.7 Similarly, Xerox introduced signed strategic partnerships to flourish sales in emerging markets together as main and east Europe, India, and Brazil.8

Strategic alliances and joint ventures have come to be increasingly popular in recent years. They allow companies to share the risks and resources required to go into international markets. And also although returns likewise may need to be shared, they provide a firm a degree of adaptability not afforded by going it alone through direct investment.

There are number of motivations for carriers to take into consideration a partnership together they expand globally, consisting of (a) facilitating industry entry, (b) risk and reward sharing, (c) an innovation sharing, (d) joint product development, and also (e) conforming to government regulations. Various other benefits incorporate political connections and distribution channel accessibility that might depend ~ above relationships.

Such alliances often are favorable as soon as (a) the partners’ strategic objectives converge while your competitive purposes diverge; (b) the partners’ size, market power, and resources are little compared to the industry leaders; and (c) partners room able to discover from one one more while limiting accessibility to their own proprietary skills.

What if a firm wants come do organization in a foreign country but lacks the specialization or resources? Or what if the target nation’s government doesn’t enable foreign suppliers to run within its borders unless it has actually a local partner? In these cases, a firm could enter into a strategy alliance v a local agency or also with the government itself. A strategic alliance is one agreement in between two service providers (or a company and a nation) to pool sources in bespeak to accomplish business goals that advantage both partners. Because that example, Viacom (a leading an international media company) has a strategic alliance v Beijing tv to develop Chinese-language music and entertainment programming.<5>

An alliance can serve a number of purposes:

Enhancing marketing effortsBuilding sales and market shareImproving productsReducing production and distribution costsSharing technology

Alliances range in scope native informal cooperative agreements to joint ventures—alliances in i beg your pardon the partners fund a separate entity (perhaps a partnership or a corporation) to control their share operation. Magazine publisher Hearst, for example, has actually joint ventures with service providers in numerous countries. So, young women in Israel have the right to read Cosmo Israel in Hebrew, and Russian women can pick up a Russian-language variation of Cosmo that meets their needs. The U.S. Version serves together a starting point come which nationally ideal material is included in each various nation. This approach enables Hearst to market the magazine in an ext than fifty countries.<6>

Strategic partnerships are also advantageous for tiny entrepreneurial this firm that may be too small to do the required investments to go into the new market themselves. In addition, some nations require foreign-owned providers to companion with a local firm if they desire to get in the market. For example, in Saudi Arabia, non-Saudi service providers looking to do organization in the nation are forced by law to have a Saudi partner. This need is usual in countless Middle eastern countries. Even without this type of regulation, a regional partner frequently helps foreign firms bridge the distinctions that otherwise make doing service locally impossible. Walmart, for example, failed numerous times over virtually a te to efficiently grow its organization in Mexico, till it discovered a strong domestic companion with similar business values.

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The defect of partnering, top top the various other hand, are lack of direct control and the opportunity that the partner’s goals differ from the that company goals. David Ricks, who has written a publication on blunders in worldwide business, defines the situation of a US firm eager to get in the Indian market: “It conveniently negotiated terms and also completed arrangements v its local partners. Specific required documents, however, such together the industrial license, foreign participation agreements, capital issues permit, income licenses for machinery and equipment, etc., were slow in being issued. Trying come expedite government approval of these items, the us firm agreed to expropriate a reduced royalty fees than initially stipulated. Despite all of this extra effort, the project was not significantly expedited, and also the reduced royalty fee decreased the firm’s profit by approximately half a million dollars over the life the the agreement.”9 Failing to take into consideration the values or integrity of a potential partner have the right to be costly, if not disastrous.

To stop these missteps, Cisco produced one globally combined team come oversee its partnerships in emerging markets. Having a specialized team enables Cisco come invest in training the managers exactly how to manage the facility relationships involved in alliances. The team follows a consistent model, using and also sharing ideal practices for the benefit of every its alliances.10