Definition

Facial trauma is an injury of the face. It might include the facial bones such as the upper jaw bone (maxilla).

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Alteraboriginal Names

Maxillofacial injury; Midface trauma; Facial injury; LeFt injuries

Causes

Facial injuries deserve to impact the upper jaw, lower jaw, cheek, nose, eye socket, or forehead. They may be resulted in by blunt force or be the outcome of a wound.

Usual causes of injury to the face include:

Car and motorcycle crashesWounds Sports injuriesViolence

Symptoms

Symptoms might include:

Changes in feeling over the faceDeformed or unalso confront or facial bonesDifficulty breathing through the nose due to swelling and also bleedingDouble visionMissing teethSwelling or bruising approximately the eyes that may reason vision difficulties

Exams and Tests

The health treatment provider will certainly perdevelop a physical exam, which might show:

Bleeding from the nose, eyes, or mouthNasal blockageBreaks in the skin (lacerations)Bruising approximately the eyes or widening of the distance in between the eyes, which might expect injury to the bones in between the eye socketsChanges in vision or the movement of the eyesImeffectively aligned top and lower teeth

The complying with might imply bone fractures:

Abnormal feelings on the cheekIrregularities of the confront that deserve to be felt by touchingMovement of the upper jaw when the head is still

A CT shave the right to of the head and bones of the face may be done.

Treatment

Surgery is done if the injury prevents normal functioning or reasons a major deformity.

The goal of treatment is to:

Control bleedingCreate a clear airwayTreat the fracture and solve broken bone segments Proccasion scars, if possibleProccasion long-term double vision or sunken eyes or cheek bonesRule out other injuries

Treatment have to be done as shortly as feasible if the person is secure and also does not have a neck fracture.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Many world do extremely well with correct therapy. More surgery may be required in 6 to 12 months to correct changes in appearance.

Possible Complications

Complications might include:

BleedingUneven faceInfectionBrain and also nervous device problemsNumbness or weaknessLoss of vision or double vision

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Go to the emergency room or speak to the local emergency number (such as 911) if you have a major injury to your challenge.

Prevention

Wear seat belts while driving.

Use protective head gear as soon as doing job-related or activities that could injure the face.


References

Kellguy RM. Maxillofacial trauma. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery. sixth ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 23.

Mayersak RJ. Facial trauma. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen"s Emergency Medicine: Concepts and also Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 35.

Neligan PC, Buck DW, Facial injuries. In: Neligan PC, Buck DW, eds. Core Procedures in Plastic Surgery. second ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 9.

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