Most singular nouns are made plural by merely putting an -s in ~ the end. There are plenty of different rules about pluralization depending upon what letter a noun end in. Irregular nouns carry out not follow plural noun rules, therefore they should be memorized or looked up in the dictionary.

You are watching: The most common rule for forming plural nouns is

Plural Noun Rules

There are many plural noun rules, and also because we usage nouns so frequently when writing, it’s vital to know every one of them! The correct spelling of plurals usually counts on what letter the singular noun ends in.
1 come make constant nouns plural, include ‑s to the end.

cat – cats

house – houses

2 If the singular noun end in ‑s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, or -z, include ‑es come the finish to make it plural.

truss – trusses

bus – buses

marsh – marshes

lunch – lunches

tax – taxes

blitz – blitzes

3 In some cases, singular nouns finishing in -s or -z, need that you twin the -s or -z prior to adding the -es for pluralization.

fez – fezzes

gas –gasses (note the gases is likewise an acceptable, and much more commonly used, assignment of this many noun)

4 If the noun ends v ‑f or ‑fe, the f is often changed to ‑ve before adding the -s to type the many version.

wife – wives

wolf – wolves


roof – roofs

belief – beliefs

chef – chefs

chief – chiefs

5 If a singular noun end in ‑y and also the letter before the -y is a consonant, readjust the finishing to ‑ies to do the noun plural.

city – cities

puppy – puppies

6 If the singular noun ends in -y and the letter prior to the -y is a vowel, simply include an -s to make it plural.

ray – rays

boy – boys

7 If the singular noun ends in ‑o, add ‑es to do it plural.

potato – potatoes

tomato – tomatoes


photo – photos

piano – pianos

halo – halos

With the distinct word volcano, girlfriend can apply the standard pluralization because that words that finish in -o or not. It’s your choice! Both that the complying with are correct:



8 If the singular noun end in ‑us, the plural finishing is typically ‑i.

cactus – cacti

focus – foci

9 If the singular noun end in ‑is, the plural ending is ‑es.

analysis – analyses

ellipsis – ellipses

10 If the singular noun ends in ‑on, the plural ending is ‑a.

phenomenon – phenomena

criterion – criteria

11 part nouns don’t change at all as soon as they’re pluralized.

sheep – sheep

series – series

species – species

deer –deer

You need to see these nouns in context to identify them together singular or plural. Think about the adhering to sentence:

Mark captured one fish, however I captured three fish.

See more: What Is A Gateway Of Last Resort? ? What Is The Purpose Of The Gateway Of Last Resort

Plural Noun Rules because that Irregular Nouns

Irregular noun follow no specific rules, therefore it’s ideal to memorize this or look up the appropriate pluralization in the dictionary.