By the end of this section, you will:Explain the similarities and differences in attitudes about the nation’s proper duty in the world

Suggested Sequencing

Use this rigid to discuss the united States’ isolationist approach to foreign policy during the interwar period.

You are watching: The 1941 lend-lease program was all of the following except

As the country remained mired in the great Depression in the early to mid-1930s, it started to appear ever more likely the the world was headed for another major war. Japan conquered Manchuria in 1931 and invaded China in 1937. In Europe, Benito Mussolini’s fascist routine in Italy had actually launched an intrusion of Ethiopia in 1935, and also Adolf Hitler, who had actually taken strength in Berlin in 1933, involved in flagrant hurt of the treaty of Versailles.

In this significantly dangerous environment, Americans came to be convinced the their authorized in world War I had been a grave mistake – one that have to not be repeated. The best-selling book Merchants that Death, published in 1934, do the provocative claim that U.S. Banks and corporations had actively plotted to attract the country into war in 1917 for battle profiteering. A Senate subcommittee chaired by senator Gerald P. Nye of phibìc Dakota soon began an investigation right into the book’s charges, and although the Nye Committee uncovered no direct evidence the a conspiracy to embroil the United says in the conflict, the did disclose that U.S. Firms had actually made massive quantities of money native the country’s involvement. In a time when “big business” was being blamed because that the good Depression, this was sufficient to to convince Americans that organization was guilty and that something had actually to be done to prevent the financial institutions from leading the country into war again.

As a direct result of the Nye Committee’s hearings, congress passed a series of regulations – in 1935, 1936, and 1937 – collectively referred to together the Neutrality Acts. Take away together, these laws authorized the president to concern a declaration, as soon as war broke out all over in the world, making it illegal to lend money or sell arms and also ammunition to any country connected in the conflict. Other items could be sold to belligerent countries, yet only if those countries paid cash because that them and also transported lock in their very own ships, a provision commonly referred to together “cash and also carry.” Finally, Americans were prohibited from traveling on pearls belonging to nations at war. In other words, the Neutrality action sought to recognize the factors that had allegedly attracted the United states into people War I, and then to half them.

The Neutrality Acts to be invoked on several occasions in the 1930s and also remained in effect in September 1939, when an excellent Britain and also France asserted war top top Germany over Hitler’s invasion of Poland – hence marking the start of human being War II in Europe. Chairman Franklin Roosevelt required to the airwaves to assure the American civilization that the United says would stay out, yet given the situations under which the war began, he recognized that many Americans naturally sympathized through Britain and also France. “Even a neutral has actually a appropriate to take account the facts,” he told his listeners. “Even a neutral cannot be asked come close his mental or his conscience”.


This America an initial Rally flyer advertised a gathering in St. Louis, Missouri, to urge the United states to continue to be out of civilization War II in Europe.

During the spring and also summer, the debate over U.S. Neutrality turn to events in the Atlantic. In an effort to protect British pearl laden v Lend-Lease goods, Roosevelt began sending U.S. Marine vessels ever farther indigenous shore. He was fast to refer to these objectives as “patrols,” because under the neutrality regulations it was illegal for U.S. Warships to take part in british convoys. Isolationists objected, claiming that Roosevelt was purposely sending ships right into harm’s way in the hope of triggering an global incident the would bring America into the war. Your fears seemed shown when, in September 1941, a German submarine fired top top the destroyer U.S.S. Greer. The president responded through an upset speech in i m sorry he referred to as German U-boats “rattlesnakes the the Atlantic” and ordered Navy commanders to “shoot ~ above sight” any type of such vessels they encountered. That loss saw regular instances of hostile fire between U.S. Ships and German submarines, return the two countries remained officially at peace with one another.

Because many Americans were paying attention to affairs in Europe in 1941, it came as a surprised that as soon as the United says did go into the war, the did so by method of events in the Pacific. Due to the fact that 1937, Japanese forces had to be waging one undeclared battle in China; in 1940, Tokyo break up an alliance v Germany and also Italy and also began making threatening moves into Southeast Asia. The Roosevelt administration sought to deter Japanese aggression through financial sanctions, finishing in July 1941, once it effectively cut off all exports come Japan, including oil, to hamper the Japanese battle machine. However, quite than control Japan’s desire to conquer East Asia, the sanctions inspired its army leaders to come to be even much more aggressive.

On December 7, 1941, Japanese forces launched attacks against multiple targets in southeast Asia and the archipelago in the Pacific. To stop the U.S. Pacific Fleet from interfering, a task pressure of Japanese plane carriers had actually traveled quietly throughout the Pacific and sent its airplane to do a surprised raid at dawn versus the U.S. Naval basic at Pearl harbor in Hawaii. By the time they finished, four U.S. Battleships had been sunk, virtually 200 planes had been damaged on the ground, and much more than 2,400 U.S. Business members had actually been killed.

An outraged President Roosevelt famously called December 7 “a day which will certainly live in infamy” and asked Congress for a statements of war versus Japan, i beg your pardon was instantly made. 4 days later, Hitler declared war top top the unified States. The America an initial Committee, recognizing that the country must now fully commit chin to war, dissolved within a couple of weeks.


Cases of TNT gunpowder shipped from the United states under the 1941 Lend-Lease Act to be stacked in a tunnel dug out of solid rock 100 feet underground in western England.

Refer to the image provided.

1. The image provided most straight reflected a growing id that

the joined States necessary to give up its post World war I international policy of neutralityisland to dance would win the European theater of Operationappeasement would lead to an end to totalitarianismJapan was a greater military threat to the United states than Nazi Germany

2. The picture was most directly influenced through the

authorization the the Manhattan Projecteconomic policies of the an excellent Depressionrapid spread of communism in eastern Europeadvances that fascist regimes in Europe

3. Which group would many likely grant the policy portrayed in the photograph?

Supporters of Washington’s Proclamation the NeutralityInternationalistsOpponents that the contract of VersaillesAnti-imperialists

4. Which of the following advances represented a extension of the sentiments shown in the photograph?

Lyndon Johnson’s great Society programEconomic assistance to rebuild western European nations after world War IICreation of the united NationsRecognition of the Cold War

Primary Sources

“‘Neutrality Act’ of 1937.” may 1, 1937. Http://

Roosevelt, Franklin D. “Arsenal of Democracy.” December 29, 1940. Http://

Roosevelt, Franklin D. “December 8, 1941: attend to to congress Requesting a explanation of War.”

Roosevelt, Franklin D. “Fireside chat .” September 3, 1939. Http://

Roosevelt, Franklin D. “September 11, 1941: Fireside conversation 18: on the Greer Incident.”

“Transcript that Lend-Lease action (1941.”

Suggested Resources

Dallek, Robert. Franklin D. Roosevelt and American foreign Policy, 1932-1945, 2nd Edition. Brand-new York: Oxford university Press, 1995.

Doenecke, Justus D. Storm on the Horizon: The difficulty to American Intervention, 1939-1941. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000.

Hamby, Alonzo L. For the survival of Democracy: Franklin Roosevelt and also the human being Crisis the the 1930s. New York: free Press, 2007.

Moser, john E. The an international Great Depression and the coming of world War II. Brand-new York: Routledge, 2015.

See more: World Map 1818 Pinkerton World Map Of The Eastern Hemisphere

Utley, Jonathan G. Going come War with Japan, 1937-1941. New York: Fordham university Press, 2005.