Anthropologists use criteria to identify tribal societies from more innovative people that reach state level. These criteria include:

One word commonly associated through tribal cultures is "legacy." One word generally associated via state level societies is "command." Nephite writers often linked Lamanites through heritages as in Mosiah 1:5, Alma 9:16, and Helaguy 15:4. Nephite authors often associated Nephites and deity through regulates as in Alma 5:61, Helaguy 14:9 and 3 Nephi 23:13. Another word generally associated through tribal societies is "identification." A word frequently linked through state level cultures is "school."


As they increase in intricacy, people come to be chiefdoms and says end up being empires. 

The Publication of Mormon unequivocally explains state level culture, and also the exact moment when complex Nephite federal government decreated right into tribalism 3 Nephi 7:2-4.

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A helpful summary of tribal societies and claims in our modern world was composed by David Ronfeldt in 2006. Entitled "In Search of How Societies Work: Tribes, the First and Forever before Form" it was published as a working paper by the Rand Corporation"s Pardee Center. In light of Ronfeldt"s analysis, the Publication of Mormon is stunningly precise in its portrayal of tribal social dynamics:

Two imperiods highlight the stark distinction in between tribal and state level cultures. The first comes from the exceptional Ohio History Connection Museum in Columbus. It is a collage of Hopewell artefacts assembled for a 2014 exhibition entitled "Top Ten Masterpieces of the Hopewell Culture."


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Outstanding Hopewell Artifacts

The artefacts portray a raptor"s talons, bear, heron, bird in flight, humale head, and also wheel style. The wheel is symbolic. See the short article "Four Sides, Four Quarters, and a Center." The other pieces are art attracted from nature. No qualified anthropologist on the planet would explain the society that produced these objects as a state. This assemblage is diagnostically characteristic of tribalism. 

Now compare the Hopewell repertoire through an image from the Museo del Sitio at Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico.

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Palenque Glyphs

Anthropologists global recognize that classical lowland also Maya culture accomplished state level.

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State level society cannot be created out of whole towel, not have the right to it be defined amethod. A culture either has it or it does not. State level cultures leave unmistakable traces that scientists acknowledge. No North Amerideserve to culture known to scientific research achieved state level society during Publication of Mormon times. Several Mesoamerideserve to societies completed state level societies in the time of Publication of Mormon times. John L. Sorenboy succinctly summed up the situation: "Only one area in primitive America had actually cities and also books: Mesoamerica." Mormon"s Codex p. 21.