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You might have heard of D-Day, the Battle of Hastings, and also Waterloo, yet carry out you understand their historical significance? Embark upon a historical journey of warfare in this quiz.
The proximate cause of the initially outbreak was a crisis in the city of Messana (Messina), commanding the straits in between Italy and Sicily. The Mamertini, a band also of Campanian mercenaries, had actually forcibly establimelted themselves within the town and also were being tough pressed in 264 by Hieron II of Syracusage. The Mamertini appearesulted in both Rome and Carthage, and also the Carthaginians, getting here first, populated Messana and also effected a reconciliation via Hieron. The Roguy commander, neverthemuch less, persisted in throwing troops into the city, and also, by seizing the Carthaginian admiral in the time of a parley, induced him to withattract. This aggression provoked war via Carthage and Syracusage.
Operations began via a joint assault upon Messana, which the Romans easily repelled. In 263 the Romans progressed via a substantial pressure into Hieron’s area and induced him to look for peace and alliance with them. They besieged and recorded the Carthaginian base at Agrigentum in 262 yet made little bit impression upon the Carthaginian fortresses in the west of the island also and also upon the towns of the internal.
In 260 the Romans constructed their first large fleet of traditional battleships. At Mylae (Milazzo), off the north Sicilian coast, their admiral Gaius Duilius beat a Carthaginian squadron of exceptional maneuvering capacity by grappling and also boarding. This left Rome totally free to land a force on Corsica (259) and also expel the Carthaginians but did not suffice to loosen their understand on Sicily. A large Roman fleet sailed out in 256, repelled the whole Carthaginian fleet off Cape Ecnomus (near modern-day Licata) and established a strengthened camp on Afrideserve to soil at Clypea (Kélibia in Tunisia). The Carthaginians, whose citizen levy was utterly disarranged, can neither store the area against the invaders nor prevent their subjects from revolting. After one project they were all set to sue for peace, but the terms which the Roman commander Marcus Atilius Regulus readily available were intolerably harsh. Accordingly they equipped a brand-new army in which, by the advice of a Greek captain of mercenaries named Xanthippus, cavalry and also elephants created the strongest arm. In 255, under Xanthippus’ command, they readily available battle to Regulus, that had actually taken up position via an insufficient pressure near Tunis, outmaneuvered him, and destroyed the mass of his army. A second Romale fleet, which consequently got to Africa after defeating the full Carthaginian fleet off Cape Hermaeum (Sharīk Peninsula), withattracted all the remaining troops.
Roman war galley
A Roman war galley through infantry on deck; in the Vatideserve to Museums.
Alinari/Art Reresource, New York
The Romans currently directed their efforts once even more against Sicily. In 254 they caught the important fortress of Panormus (Palermo), but once Carthage threw reinforcements into the island also the war aacquire involved a standstill. In 251 or 250 the Roguy general Lucius Caecilius Metellus at last brought about a pitched battle near Panormus in which the enemy’s force was effectively crippled. This victory was adhered to by an investment of the chief Punic base at Lilybaeum (Marsala), together with Drepanum (Trapani), by land and sea. The besiegers met through a gallant resistance and also in 249 were compelled to withdraw by the loss of their fleet in a surprise strike upon Drepanum, in which the admiral Publius Claudius Pulcher was repulsed with a loss of 93 ships. While this was the Romans’ only naval defeat in the battle, their fleet had suffered a collection of grievous losses by storm, and currently it was so reduced that the strike upon Sicily had actually to be suspfinished. At the same time, the Carthaginians, who felt no less sevedepend the financial strain of the prolonged struggle, decreased their forces and made no attempt to deliver a counterattack. The just notable attribute of the ensuing projects is the skillful guerrilla war waged by a new Carthaginian commander, Hamilcar Barca, from his strong positions on Mt. Ercte (247–244) and Mt. Eryx (modern-day Erice) (244–242) in western Sicily, whereby he effectually screened Lilybaeum from any kind of attempt on it by the Romale land army.
In 242 Rome resumed operations at sea. By a magnificent effort on the component of personal citizens a fleet of 200 warships was equipped and sent out to renew the blockade of Lilybaeum. The Carthaginians hastily built up a relief pressure, however in a battle combated off the Aegateways Insulae (Egadi Islands), west of Drepana, their fleet was captured at a disadvantage and also greatly sunk or caught (March 10, 241). This victory, by providing the Romans undebated command also of the sea, rendered particular the ultimate fevery one of the Punic strongholds in Sicily. The Carthaginians accordingly opened up negotiations and also consented to a tranquility through which they ceded Sicily and the Lipari (Eolie) Islands to Rome and also phelp an indemnity of 3,200 talents.
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The interval between the First and Second Punic Wars (241–218 bce)
The loss of naval prominence not just deprived the Carthaginians of their predominance in the western Mediterranean yet exposed their abroad empire to disintegration under renewed strikes by Rome. The temper of the Roman civilization was quickly made manifest during a conflict which broke out in between the Carthaginians and their discontented mercenaries. A gross breach of the treaty was perpetrated once a Roguy force was sent to occupy Sardinia, whose insimmediate garrikid had actually available to surrender the island (238). To the remonstrances of Carthage the Romans replied with a direct declaration of war, and just withorganized their strike upon the formal cession of Sardinia and also Corsica and also the payment of a even more indemnity.