Bona Sforza of Aragon was queen consort the Poland, cool duchess consort of Lithuania native 1518 and also duchess sovereign of Bari, from 1524.The daughter that the battle each other of Milan, Gian Galeazzo and also Isabella the Aragon, to be the 2nd wife of King Sigismund ns (1518) and thus came to be Queen Consort the Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania.Bona to be the nephew of Bianca Maria Sforza, that in 1493 had married Emperor Maximilian I. In ~ the fatality of his mommy Isabella in 1524, Bona succeeded her in the title of Duchess of Bari and Princess the Rossano, and additionally became a suitor in the surname of the Brienne family members to the Kingdom the Jerusalem.Bona had actually not yet turned a year as soon as he was an orphan of the young father, maybe poisoned by his uncle Ludovico il Moro, who, currently his regent during his minority, took power assuming the title of battle each other of Milan. His wife Beatrice d"Este assumed the title of Duchess the Milan by carrying her title of Duchess the Bari to the widow Isabella the Aragon. Isabella, along with her four children, moved away indigenous the Milanese court in 1500, when she realized the her make the efforts to identify the rights of his son Francesco Maria Sforza to be in vain.In Naples, Bona received specific and flexible education, together it was used in the Renaissance courts. His chef preceptor to be a humanist and poet, Crisostomo Colonna, a member the the Pontanian Academy, that was influenced by the functions of Petrarch in the literary field. However the formation of his personality was cared especially by his mother, who likewise took care of obtaining a marriage beneficial for she daughter and useful for the interests of the dynasty: in 1518, in ~ twenty-four, observed his cousin Vittoria Colonna, Bona married in naples the King of Poland Sigismondo I, a three-year-old widower of fifty-one through Barbara Zápolya.Upon reaching Poland, Bona was crowned in Krakow, wherein the court resided in which spread out the Italian Renaissance culture. In international policy he gone after a plan of prestige: in 1525 Poland prospered in making Prussia its own tax, in 1533 it entered into a peace treaty through Turkey, it preserved friendly connections with Lithuania, which in 1569 will unify through Poland, and with France, in one anti-imperial function, come guard against possible expansionist policies of the Habsburgs and, in ~ the very same time, in 1543 he married his boy Sigismondo Augusto through Princess Elisabeth that Habsburg. He likewise maintained friendly relationships with Spain, as result of his understanding in the Duchy the Bari.Inside Bona strives come strengthen real power, organizing a party to the court and accumulating a substantial amount of estates. He dealt with the strength of the nobles in order to do Poland a contemporary absolutist state, following the example of France, Spain and England: due to the fact that the nobles to be entrusted through the task of electing the brand-new king, in 1530, when he to be still alive. Dad Sigismondo had actually his just son, Sigismondo Augusto, crowned just ten years, there is no requiring the approval that the nobility, so regarding make her understand that the sequence to the throne had to follow the dynastic line. The noble only got the promise that in the future no coronation would certainly take place throughout the life the the king and also without approval that the Diet the the nobles, the Sejm Walny.Having obtained the vital papal dispensations and with the consent that Sigismondo, it to be she who decided the bishops, attracted from the nobility, provided they served the sovereign with fidelity. It to be a way of securing the solutions of bishops less faithful come the directives of Rome and also more dedicated to the reason of the polish state, as well as a device to subtract power from the nobility, who tried to divide versus the tiny nobility that managed the Diet the good aristocracy the Senate.In Poland the populace did no follow a single spiritual confession: in addition to a Catholic majority, there were Orthodox, Armenian Christians and also Muslims in the East, Lutherans in the North, Jews, and tiny groups of Calvinists and antitrinitaries, the latter coming largely from the Italy come escape persecution. Formally, Bona to be Catholic yet it is not particular whether she to be really committed to this confession as to any other: to her confessor, the Franciscan Francesco Lismanini, donated the sermons by Bernardino Ochino, the general of the Capuchins who had fled Italy earlier in Switzerland and also then in Germany, and also Lismanini, preceptor of his boy Sigismondo Augusto, taught the establishments of Calvin and ended increase openly adhering come Calvinism. The physician of Bona Sforza to be then the Giorgio Biandrata that at the time was, at the very least apparently, Catholic, but ended up being an open up antitrinitario.Józef Simmler: The death of Barbara RadziwiłłAfter the death of Elizabeth, which took ar in 1545, in 1547 his child Sigismondo married, without his knowledge and the polishing diet, Barbara Radziwiłł, belonging to a family members of Lithuanian nobility, i beg your pardon evidently had no political weight in the europe scene. A marriage which, perceived from the point of check out of dynastic and also national interests, seemed to show the politics immaturity the the young king. Bona was instead planning her marriage with Anna d"Este, daughter of fight it out Ercole and also especially that Renata, closely related to the French royal family members to be the daughter the Louis XII, a marriage that can encourage her initiatives to settle on the throne the Hungary daughter Isabella and who would have actually strengthened she interests in Italy.It is however possible that Sigismondo deliberately avoided a marital relationship of interest, constant with his moral principles: we know that in his library there were books by Calvin and Erasmus of Rotterdam. The last possessed in particular the Institutio principis christiani in which, among other things, the dutch humanist condemned marital relationships stipulated through rulers to pursue their politics interests: "The princes need to shy away from foreign partnerships and particularly from contracting marital relationships out from your borders. What sense can an covenant have because that which a marital relationship suddenly transforms an Irishman to a ruler of the Indies or renders a Syrian a king of Italy? above all, imperial weddings perform not guarantee peace. England had actually concluded a matrimonial alliance with Scotland and also yet James V got into England ".Not also the Diet of the nobles approved the marriage, and tried to make Sigismund recede indigenous the step taken, v repudiation or, alternatively, abdicating, or even depriving the mam of she queen"s rights. Everything was useless, and also Barbara Radziwiłł to be crowned, without Bona Sforza attending the ceremony.However Barbara became an extremely ill soon, without hope of recovery and at that suggest Bona want to be reconciled v her daughter-in-law: in among her letters, she asserted "to recognize and also honor your peaceful Highness together her daughter and also beloved daughter-in-law <...> pray and also hope might the mr God heal you soon. " There was no cure and also Barbara Radziwiłł died in Krakow at the age of thirty on may 8, 1551, not prior to she had prepared come be hidden in her homeland in Vilnius. Sigismondo remarried two years later on with Catherine the Austria, sister of his first wife Elizabeth, but also this time he could not have actually children, thus bringing the home of Jagelloni to extinction.Barbara"s untimely fatality turned suspects on Bona: in many cases, failing to create the real cause of fatality led to think in the treatment of potions offered in food and also drink and the fame of "poisoners" that surrounded the 16 century the Italian princes amplified the conjectures. Moreover, the government task exercised by her aroused the discontent that the noble state, which saw a hazard to she power, every the an ext inadmissible and also humiliating, due to the fact that she was a woman who showed up to it is in authoritarian and frantic. After thirty years of reign, in 1556 the same Bona determined to leave Poland. In ~ that allude his boy Sigismondo, feeling his own inadequacy, tried to restrain her but the decision to be made: ~ the marriage of his daughter Sofia, Bona went back to Italy and cleared up in Bari.The critical Polish period of Bona Sforza was marked by his aspiration - climate disappointed - come be called Viceroy of naples by the Habsburgs: this ambition is today documented by the correspondence exchanged between her and also her diplomatic agent Pompeo Lanza, who as much as the whole 1554 he represented it, along with the Orator Pappacoda, in Brussels in ~ Charles V and also later until 1556 in London at Maria Tudor, the so-called Sanguinaria.His old duchy had actually been impoverished by the battles waged by the Spaniards against France: come this Philip II had not hesitated come seize his possessions. It was for this reason - and also for the traditional legend of poisons that would certainly circulate in the Italian courts - that at his death, in 1557, was born the rumor of poisoning perpetrated by his secretary Gian Lorenzo Pappacoda, i m sorry would have acted in the attention of the Spanish king Filippo.His coffin, brought in the Basilica the St.
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Nicholas, continued to be unattended for many hours, was set on fire by candles and also its charred remains were hidden in a chapel without special decorations. Later the sons Sigismondo and Anna arranged for a sumptuous sepulcher to it is in built, located behind the main altar that the Basilica, i m sorry is still one of the major attractions for visitors to Bari.