" data-medium-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1869.jpg?w=245" data-large-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1869.jpg?w=836" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), Valkyrie (1869), oil top top canvas, 243 x 194 cm, Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo. Wikimedia Commons.

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European painted narratives have been conquered by story from the classic Greek and Roman canons. Till the 1800s, very few narrative artist tackled myths from various other cultures. One early on specialist in vikings myths and background was Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892).

Born in Drammen, Norway, that trained first in Copenhagen, climate in the Düsseldorf Academy, prior to returning to Norway in 1861. Indigenous 1863 to 1871 he functioned most of the time in Paris, yet spent much of the remainder of his career in his indigenous Norway. He to be an achieved and successful painter and illustrator (mainly for history books ~ above Norway). His paintings are in plenty of galleries throughout Norway and Sweden, with a specific concentration in his family home in Drammen, 25 mile south-east that Oslo.

Valkyries and Norse Myths

One of the best-known segments of norse mythology is of the Valkyries, a team of mrs horse-riders, often illustrated as warriors, who decide which soldiers die in battle, and which survive. They then bear the bodies of the dead warriors on their horses to the room of the slain, Valhalla.

Along with various other stories indigenous Norse sagas and epic poetry, they to be modified to form the narrative in Wagner’s operatic sequence The Ring the the Nibelung; The Valkyries is the second of the four operas, and also was first performed in 1870, the year in which the Franco-Prussian war started.

Ever since, the Valkyries have actually been regrettably strongly connected with German nationalism, specifically in the years before the 2nd World War, which is a strange turn for vikings myths! In much more recent years, the music association has become even an ext strained, adhering to the use of Wagner’s Ride the the Valkyries in Francis Ford Coppola’s epos movie collection in the Vietnam War, Apocalypse Now (1979).

" data-medium-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1864.jpg?w=220" data-large-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1864.jpg?w=751" class="size-full wp-image-10842" src="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1864.jpg?w=940" alt="arbovalkyrie1864" srcset="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1864.jpg?w=940 940w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1864.jpg?w=110 110w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1864.jpg?w=220 220w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1864.jpg?w=768 768w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1864.jpg?w=751 751w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1864.jpg 1116w" sizes="(max-width: 940px) 100vw, 940px" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), Valkyrie (1864), oil top top canvas, 263 × 203 cm, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm. Wikimedia Commons.Valkyrie (1864), currently at the Nationalmuseum in Stockholm, is the earlier of Arbo’s two paintings of this subject. That painted the in Paris, but it was an initial shown in Stockholm in 1866.

" data-medium-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1869.jpg?w=245" data-large-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1869.jpg?w=836" class="size-full wp-image-10843" src="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1869.jpg?w=940" alt="arbovalkyrie1869" srcset="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1869.jpg?w=940 940w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1869.jpg?w=122 122w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1869.jpg?w=245 245w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1869.jpg?w=768 768w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1869.jpg?w=836 836w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1869.jpg 1142w" sizes="(max-width: 940px) 100vw, 940px" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), Valkyrie (1869), oil on canvas, 243 x 194 cm, Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo. Wikimedia Commons.Five year later, Arbo painted a 2nd version, Valkyrie (1869), which has actually been preserved in Norway’s Nasjonalgalleriet in Oslo. Both follow typical conventions in reflecting warrior-like women, through chain letter armour, shields, helmets, and also spears. Through them fly their accompanying ravens.

" data-medium-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboasgardride.jpg?w=300" data-large-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboasgardride.jpg?w=940" class="size-full wp-image-10832" src="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboasgardride.jpg?w=940" alt="arboasgardride" srcset="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboasgardride.jpg?w=940 940w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboasgardride.jpg?w=150 150w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboasgardride.jpg?w=300 300w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboasgardride.jpg?w=768 768w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboasgardride.jpg?w=1024 1024w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboasgardride.jpg 1200w" sizes="(max-width: 940px) 100vw, 940px" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), Åsgårdsreien (Åsgård’s Ride, The Wild Hunt) (1872), oil top top canvas, 83.5 x 165.5 cm, Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo. Wikimedia Commons.Åsgårdsreien (Åsgård’s Ride, The Wild Hunt) (1872) is drawn from a more general European individual myth, i beg your pardon is specifically including in the vikings canon, of a team of ghostly huntsmen pass in wild pursuit. Seeing the Wild Hunt to be the harbinger of significant catastrophe, generally a battle with countless deaths. The riders could additionally snatch people up and abduct them, possibly to Valhalla, together Arbo reflects in this an effective painting.

" data-medium-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbodagr.jpg?w=240" data-large-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbodagr.jpg?w=817" class="size-full wp-image-10834" src="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbodagr.jpg?w=940" alt="arbodagr" srcset="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbodagr.jpg?w=940 940w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbodagr.jpg?w=120 120w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbodagr.jpg?w=240 240w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbodagr.jpg?w=768 768w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbodagr.jpg 958w" sizes="(max-width: 940px) 100vw, 940px" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), Dagr (1874), other details no known. Wikimedia Commons.Dagr (1874) reflects the Norse deity of the day (as protest to night), the child of the god Dellingr, and the driver of the bright-maned equine Skinfaxi. With each other they carry day and also its light to mankind, lot in the method that Apollo’s sunlight chariot overcome the skies for the civilisations of the Mediterranean. Arbo again mirrors a timeless depiction drawn from the vikings myths, with Dagr’s appropriate hand bearing a burn brand.

" data-medium-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbonott.jpg?w=230" data-large-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbonott.jpg?w=750" class="size-full wp-image-10839" src="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbonott.jpg?w=940" alt="arbonott" srcset="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbonott.jpg 750w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbonott.jpg?w=115 115w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbonott.jpg?w=230 230w" sizes="(max-width: 750px) 100vw, 750px" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), Nótt speak Hrímfaxi (1887), various other details not known. Wikimedia Commons.Nótt speak Hrímfaxi (1887) mirrors the dark side, the night. Nótt is given as the daughter that Nörvi; her 3rd marriage to be to Dellingr, the worry of which to be Dagr. Interestingly, return Norse myth accounted for both day and night with gods, Greek myth had a much less influential goddess the the night, Nyx (Roman Nox).

" data-medium-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohervorsdeath.jpg?w=300" data-large-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohervorsdeath.jpg?w=940" class="size-full wp-image-10836" src="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohervorsdeath.jpg?w=940" alt="arbohervorsdeath" srcset="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohervorsdeath.jpg?w=940 940w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohervorsdeath.jpg?w=150 150w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohervorsdeath.jpg?w=300 300w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohervorsdeath.jpg?w=768 768w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohervorsdeath.jpg?w=1024 1024w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohervorsdeath.jpg 1252w" sizes="(max-width: 940px) 100vw, 940px" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), Hervör’s fatality (1880), other details not known. Wikimedia Commons.Hervör’s Death (1880) shows this shieldmaiden – who in numerous respects each other a Valkyrie in her dress – dice in an inheritance conflict. She to be leading one army versus an attack of a much larger military of Huns. The conflict arose between her brothers, Hlöd and also Angantýr, and it has been suggested that the men shown represent her foster father Ormar, and brother Angantýr. This appears to it is in a variation on the account of the Poetic Edda, whereby she is mourned through those males in Árheimar rather than on the battlefield as shown.

Norwegian History

" data-medium-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbotimespast.jpg?w=300" data-large-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbotimespast.jpg?w=940" class="size-full wp-image-10841" src="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbotimespast.jpg?w=940" alt="arbotimespast" srcset="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbotimespast.jpg?w=940 940w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbotimespast.jpg?w=150 150w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbotimespast.jpg?w=300 300w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbotimespast.jpg?w=768 768w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbotimespast.jpg?w=1024 1024w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbotimespast.jpg 1252w" sizes="(max-width: 940px) 100vw, 940px" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), Times past (date not known), other details no known. Wikimedia Commons.Times Past (date no known) offers a very similar composition to the of Hervör’s Death to display the results of another Norse battle.

" data-medium-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohaakonthegood.jpg?w=300" data-large-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohaakonthegood.jpg?w=940" class="size-full wp-image-10835" src="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohaakonthegood.jpg?w=940" alt="arbohaakonthegood" srcset="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohaakonthegood.jpg?w=940 940w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohaakonthegood.jpg?w=150 150w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohaakonthegood.jpg?w=300 300w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohaakonthegood.jpg?w=768 768w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohaakonthegood.jpg?w=1024 1024w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohaakonthegood.jpg 1250w" sizes="(max-width: 940px) 100vw, 940px" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), Håkon the an excellent and the farmers at the Sacrifice the Mære (1860), oil ~ above canvas, various other details not known. Wikimedia Commons.Håkon the good and the farmers at the Sacrifice the Mære (1860) shows King Håkon Haraldsson (c 920–961) winning end landowners and promoting the counter of the Norwegian human being to Christianity. Together the younger child of King Harald Fairhair, that was sent out for security to the court of King Athelstan in England, wherein he to be converted come Christianity. ~ above his father’s death, he returned to Norway through an expeditionary force, winner the support of the landowners, and also assumed the throne in 631. Mære was among the most sacred pagan areas in Norway, wherein sacrifices to be made.

" data-medium-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbostolavstiklestad.jpg?w=300" data-large-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbostolavstiklestad.jpg?w=940" class="size-full wp-image-10840" src="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbostolavstiklestad.jpg?w=940" alt="arbostolavstiklestad" srcset="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbostolavstiklestad.jpg?w=940 940w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbostolavstiklestad.jpg?w=150 150w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbostolavstiklestad.jpg?w=300 300w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbostolavstiklestad.jpg?w=768 768w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbostolavstiklestad.jpg?w=1024 1024w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbostolavstiklestad.jpg 1603w" sizes="(max-width: 940px) 100vw, 940px" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), Saint Olaf’s autumn in the fight of Stiklestad (c 1859), watercolor, 31.5 x 47 cm, place not known. Wikimedia Commons.Saint Olaf’s fall in the battle of Stiklestad (c 1859) is a watercolor produced a print which appeared in the publication Billeder af Norges Historie (Pictures the Norway’s History), released by Christian Tønsberg in 1860. This scene shows Tore Hund, at the right, death King Olaf II of Norway through his spear, in the fight of Stiklestad in 1030. The King was later canonised. Olaf’s younger half-brother, Harald Sigurdsson, made it through the battle to succeed Olaf, only to dice at the fight of Stamford bridge in 1066.

" data-medium-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbobattlestamfordbridge.jpg?w=300" data-large-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbobattlestamfordbridge.jpg?w=940" class="size-full wp-image-10833" src="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbobattlestamfordbridge.jpg?w=940" alt="arbobattlestamfordbridge" srcset="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbobattlestamfordbridge.jpg?w=940 940w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbobattlestamfordbridge.jpg?w=150 150w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbobattlestamfordbridge.jpg?w=300 300w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbobattlestamfordbridge.jpg?w=768 768w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbobattlestamfordbridge.jpg?w=1024 1024w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbobattlestamfordbridge.jpg 1504w" sizes="(max-width: 940px) 100vw, 940px" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), The fight of Stamford leg (1870), oil on canvas, dimensions no known, Nordnorsk Kunstmuseum, Tromsø, Norway. Wikimedia Commons.The fight of Stamford Bridge (1870) reflects a battle between Norwegian (‘Viking’) forces and an English military in Yorkshire, throughout the fateful year in i beg your pardon England was got into by Normans. Return there to be some smaller sized subsequent campaigns by vikings invaders, this is normally taken to mark the end of the ‘Viking Age’ in north England.

The Norwegian pressure was led by King Harald Hardrada and also the English king’s brother, Tostig Godwinson. The English force was led by the King of England, Harold Godwinson, who passed away less than three weeks later on at the fight of Hastings, and also so surrendered his throne come William, a Norman. On 25 September 1066, King Harald Hardrada was eliminated when he to be hit in the neck by one arrow, as shown in the centre of Arbo’s atmospheric painting. Tostig Godwinson and also most of the Norwegian military were likewise killed.


However, as soon as he reached Voss, in the mountains, he to be ambushed by locals. His tiny force that Birkebeiners combated off the attack, however he had lost the element of surprise. He because of this moved east, into the Voss mountains, in harsh winter conditions, as shown here, before overwintering in Østerdal. His path is still recognized as Sverresgong. His competitor to the throne, Magnus Erlingsson, fell at the fight of Fimreite in 1184, leave Sverre’s government unchallenged.


" data-medium-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbolidengunvormerman.jpg?w=300" data-large-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbolidengunvormerman.jpg?w=940" class="size-full wp-image-10838" src="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbolidengunvormerman.jpg?w=940" alt="arbolidengunvormerman" srcset="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbolidengunvormerman.jpg?w=940 940w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbolidengunvormerman.jpg?w=150 150w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbolidengunvormerman.jpg?w=300 300w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbolidengunvormerman.jpg?w=768 768w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbolidengunvormerman.jpg?w=1024 1024w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbolidengunvormerman.jpg 1500w" sizes="(max-width: 940px) 100vw, 940px" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), Liden Gunvor and the Merman (1874-1880), oil ~ above canvas, 26.5 x 37 cm, private collection. Wikimedia Commons.Liden Gunvor and the Merman (1874-1880) is drawn from an opera The Fishers, by johannes Ewald and also Johann Hartmann, i m sorry was very first performed in Copenhagen in 1780. Liden Gunver or Gunvor is required to sea by an alluring yet deceptive merman (the male equivalent of mermaid). Mermen to be a common feature in Greek, Finnish, Irish, and Norse myths, but appear much less commonly in paints than mermaids.

" data-medium-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboviewoffrognerslottet.jpg?w=300" data-large-file="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboviewoffrognerslottet.jpg?w=940" class="size-full wp-image-10844" src="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboviewoffrognerslottet.jpg?w=940" alt="arboviewoffrognerslottet" srcset="https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboviewoffrognerslottet.jpg?w=940 940w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboviewoffrognerslottet.jpg?w=150 150w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboviewoffrognerslottet.jpg?w=300 300w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboviewoffrognerslottet.jpg?w=768 768w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboviewoffrognerslottet.jpg?w=1024 1024w, https://juniorg8.comdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboviewoffrognerslottet.jpg 1605w" sizes="(max-width: 940px) 100vw, 940px" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), see of Frognerslot from Skovveien (1890), oil ~ above cardboard, dimensions and also location not known. Wikimedia Commons.Arbo also painted in various other genres. In instance he shows up to be hidebound to ‘Salon’ style, this very painterly, perhaps totally Impressionist, landscape of a View the Frognerslot native Skovveien (1890) shows how comfortable he to be sketching his indigenous country.


Other arts – literature and music in details – space generally an ext international and cross-cultural in the narratives which castle use. In numerous cases, readers and also audiences like a wide variety of stories and mythologies. Those which kind the basis of stare paintings have been drawn from a much narrower range of sources, significantly Greek and also Roman myths, the Bible, and some an essential events in europe history.

The factors for this narrowness in sources might derive from the need for the viewer to already be familiar with the story gift portrayed; the classics and the holy bible are among the couple of which have been common across much of Europe. The is a dead that few painters have seen the opportunity to broaden their story base, and also that various other mythologies are viewed as local, and thus of tiny general appeal.

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I will take into consideration this further in a future article looking in ~ depictions the the Finnish epic, the Kalevala.