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Lewis and also Clark Corps of discovery Quotes about Fiddling and Dancing through Phil and Vivian WilliamsLewis and Clark lugged the an initial fiddlers come the Pacific Northwest who fiddle playing have the right to be documented. While other Americans and also Europeans had explored pieces of the see from Missouri to the Pacific Northwest, this U.S. Military expedition to be the very first full U.S. Government exploration of "The an excellent West." It overcome or touched what are now the claims of Missouri, Kansas, Iowa, Nebraska, southern Dakota, north Dakota, Montana, Idaho, Washington, and also Oregon.Meriwether Lewis to be picked by president Jefferson to command the expedition, and also Lewis picked wilhelm Clark as his second in command. At the time Clark was living in Clarksville, Indiana Territory. ~ above October 26, 1803, Clark recruited personal George Gibson for the expedition. Gibson to be born in Pennsylvania, increased in Maryland, and also was working in Kentucky as a woodsman and also carpenter when Clark recruited him. He also played the fiddle, and also thus the expedition had obtained its an initial fiddler.

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In might of 1804, the Corps that Discovery carried their watercrafts to St. Charles, Missouri, and also continued to make preparations for the expedition, including the recruitment of two more members. Pierre (Peter) Cruzatte to be born in St. Louis. His father to be French and also his mother, Omaha Indian, and also he was fluent in Omaha and also sign language, and he played the fiddle. Though remote in one eye, he to be an proficient boatman who had actually been increase the Missouri river in the hair trade through the Indians. Shortly prior to the Corps of exploration headed increase the Missouri River, Cruzatte signed on as a private. The expedition had obtained its 2nd fiddler.

Several members that the exploration kept journals, i beg your pardon contain countless references to violin music and dancing. Early on, Lewis and Clark uncovered that the ind they encountered really preferred the fiddling and also asked many times along the way for the violin to it is in played and for the males to dance. The expedition used the fiddling to acquire in great with the indians for for sure passage and bartering for provides they needed. We speak to this “fiddle diplomacy,” and also believe that the expedition may not have been successful without the fiddling.

While fiddling and also dancing appear many times in the journals, nobody of the titles of the tunes played are mentioned. The tunes would have actually been dance melody extant in 1804 and also familiar in the U.S.

We additionally know very small about the dancing the was done. Various other than the fairly vague account of York’s to dance on January 1, 1805, the only description we have actually of the dancing originates from the oral background of the Nez Perce Indians. In 1936, Chief countless Wounds (Sam Lott), the great grandson that Red Bear, a Nez Perce chef who aided Lewis and also Clark, included stories handed down in his family about Lewis and also Clark in his typewritten manuscript historic Sketches that the Nez Perces: personal Incidents in the stays of the famed Chiefs the the Nez Perce. He stated “first time Nez Perces see fiddle one guy he play and sing and also all others man dance various kind dance 보다 Indians war dance and also negro York he do lots dance v feet and also looks funny, all world laugh every body to be happy.” and “One white man named Potts . . . He boss various other mans just how to carry out funny dance and sing songs, and all laugh and also Lewis paint deals with of Nez Perces with red paint.” This indicates to us that York was action dancing, and also that Sergeant Potts was calling a cotillion (an early type of square dance) or a longways set dance.

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Most the the following price quotes are from Gary E. Moulton (ed.), The critical Journals that Lewis & Clark, (13 Vols.; Lincoln: university of Nebraska Press, 2002-2004). Over there are also a few from Nicholas Biddle’s background of the exploration Under the Command of Captains Lewis and also Clark, ed. Paul Allen, (2 Vols.; Philadelphia: Bradford & Inskeep, 1814), and also Elliott Coues (ed.), background of the expedition Under the Command of Lewis and Clark, A brand-new Edition, (4 Vols; new York: Francis P. Harper, 1893; reprint, new York: Dover, 1965). They are in chronological order. The ar where the newspaper entry was made is adhered to by the name of the exploration member indigenous whose journal it is take away in brackets < >. After the quote is the source and web page number. The misspellings space from the initial journals, and from a time once English language spellings were no yet standardized. Some of the entries space redundant, due to the fact that the newspaper writers often re-wrote your entries or replicated from every other.

May 17, 1804, follow me the Missouri flow at St. Charles, Missouri “at the very same court was tried man Collins Charged first for being missing without leaving - 2nd for behaveing in an unbecomeing manner at the ball last night ....” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 2, 236

May 18, 1804 “passed the evening verry agreeable dancing v the french ladies, &c”

“part of today we were employ"d, procuring necessary"s because that our Voyage; in the Evening us were enjoy it at a Ball, which was attended by a number of the French ladies, who were substantial fond that dancing.” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 11, 10

May 19, 1804 “I am invite to a sphere in the Village, let several of the males go” Footnote on ns 240 claims “Whitehouse was probably among them, return he has dated the entry may 18. He refers to ‘verry agreeable dancing with the french ladies, &c.’”

“I recve an invite to a Ball, the is no in my strength to go.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 2, 239

June 11, 1804, along the Missouri River in between the Osage River and also the Kansas river “our hunters killed two Deer, G Drewry eliminated 2 bear in the Prareie to day, guys verry vivid Danceing & singing &c.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 2, 293

August 16, 1804, with the Omaha Indians close to present-day the supervisory board Bluffs, Iowa “the party in high soul fiddleing & danceing last night.” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 9, 40

August 18, 1804 “had a run which it is long untile 11 oClock, the close of cap Lewis Birthday.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 2, 488

“the evening was closed through an extra Gill of Whiskey & a dance untill 11 oClock.” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 2, 489

October 12, 1804, through the Arikara Indians, draw close the Mandan villages in contemporary North Dakota “a clean & pleasant morning. The ind assembled on the bank near united state for to Trade with us. They wanted red repaint mostly, yet would Give whatever they had to spare for any kind of kind of products one of the men provided an Indian a pin hook & the Indian gave him in return a pair that Moggisins we offered them Some tiny articles of goods for Buffalow Robes & Moggn. &.C. The police officers went come the villages in order to hear what the chiefs had to Say. They offered us 10 or 12 bushels that corn & beans &.C. &.C. The policemans came top top board around 12 oclock took a good Indian with us who had actually been come the head the the Missouri River. About 1 oclock we collection off the fiddle playing & the horns sound &.C. Small abo. The communities we observed a an excellent nomber of Squaws to work in toteing wood throughout the flow in your Buffalow hide cannoes conduct on.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 9, 83

October 30, 1804, wintering at the Mandan towns / ft Mandan, in present-day main North Dakota “the Party Danced which Delited the Indians.” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 3, 215

“on my return uncovered maney Inds. At our Camp, gave the party a dram, castle Danced as is verry Comn. In the night which pleasure the Savages much.” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 3, 216

October 31, 1804 “In the evening the chef Visited us Dressed in his brand-new Suit, & delayed until late the males Dancd till 10 oclock which was usual with castle “ Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 3, 218

“Soon after ~ those Chiefs left united state the grand Chief the the Mandans came Dressed in the clothing we had provided with his 2 small Suns, and requested to watch the men Dance which they verry easily gratified him in” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 3, 219

November 27, 1804 “The 2 Chiefs lot pleased v their treatments & the Cherefullness that the party, who Danced come amuse castle &c. &c.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 3, 241

“ we had actually a run this evening. Rivet danced ~ above his head &C” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 9, 98

December 25th 1804 “I to be awakened before Day by a discharge of 3 platoons <1> indigenous the Party and the french, the men merrily Disposed, I provide them all a little Taffia and also permited 3 Cannon fired, at elevating Our flag, Some men went the end to hunt & the rather to Danceing and also Continued untill 9 clock P, M, once the frolick ended &c.” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 3, 261

“we fired the Swivels in ~ day rest & each male fired one round. Our officers offered the party a drink of Taffee. We had the ideal to eat that can be had, & continued firing dancing & frolicking dureing the totality day. The Savages did not Trouble united state as we had requested them not to come as it was a an excellent medician day through us. We appreciated a funny cristmas dureing the job & night untill nine oClock—all in tranquility & quietness.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 9, 106

“The morning was ushered in by two discharges the a swivel, and a ring of tiny arms through the entirety corps. Captain Clarke then presented to each guy a glass that brandy, and we hoisted the American flag in the garrison, and its very first waving in fort Mandan was commemorated with one more glass.— The males then clearing out one of the rooms and commenced dancing. In ~ 10 o"clock us had another glass that brandy, and also at 1 a gun to be fired together a signal because that dinner. At fifty percent past 2, another gun to be fired, together a notification to assemble at the dance, i m sorry was continued in a jovial manner till 8 at night; and without the visibility of any kind of females, except three squaws, wives come our interpreter, <2> who took no other part than the amusement of feather on. None of the natives pertained to the garrison this day; the commanding officers having actually requested they must not, which was strictly attend to. During the remainder the the month we lived in peace and also tranquility in the garrison, and also were daily visited by the natives.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 10, 68

“we ushred in the morning with a discharge the the Swivvel, and one ring of little arms of every the party. Then another from the Swivel. Then Capt. Clark gift a glass that brandy to each male of the party. Us hoisted the american flag and also each male had another Glass the brandy. The men prepared one of the rooms and commenced dancing. At 10 oC. We had another glass that brandy, in ~ one a gun was fired together a Signal for diner. Half past two one more gun to be fired to assemble at the dance, and So we kept it increase in a jovel way untill Eight oC. In ~ night, all without the compy. That the female Seck, other than three Squaws <4> the Intreptirs wives and they took no part with us just to look on. Agreeable to the policemans request the natives all continued to be at their towns all day.—“ Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 11, 113 “This morning being Christmass, the day was announced by the discharge of our Swivels, and one ring from our tiny arms the the totality company; around 7 o"Clock A. M. Us fired ours Swivels again, when Captain Clark come out the his quarters, and also presented a Glass the Brandy to each guy of our party.— He then ordered the American Flag to it is in hoisted, which being done; he gift them again with one more Glass of brandy.— The males then prepared among the Rooms, and commenced dancing, we having actually with us 2 Violins & plenty of Musicans in our party.—

At 10 o"Clock A. M. The whole of the party were again served with one more Glass brandy they ongoing dancing "till 1 o"Clock P. M. As soon as our Cannon to be fir"d off, as a signal because that dinner, at half an hour past 2 oclock P. M. Us fired turn off our Cannon, and repaired to the Room come dance, which they continued at it rotates 8 o"Clock P. M. There was none that the Mandans, Excepting 3 Squaws our Interpreters Wives in ~ the Fort, the Officer having actually requested the Natives, to continue to be in your Towns, which castle complied with, the policemans this day named our Fort, fort Mandan,—“ Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 11, 113-114

January 1, 1805 “The work was ushered in by the Discharge of two Cannon, we suffered 16 males <1> with their musick come visit the first Village for the purpose of Danceing, by together they stated the perticular request of the Chiefs of that village, around 11 clock I through an inturpeter & two males walked as much as the town (my views to be to alay Some tiny miss understanding which had actually taken ar thro jelloucy and mortification regarding our treatment in the direction of them<)> I discovered them lot pleased in ~ the Danceing of our men, i ordered my black Servent to run which enjoy it the Croud verry much, and also Some what astonished them, that So huge a male Should be energetic &c. &.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 3, 266-267

“we fired a Swivel & drank a Glass. About 9 o.C. 15 the the party went as much as the first village that Mandans come dance as it had actually been their request. Lugged with us a violin & a Tambereen & a Sounden horn. Together we arived at the entrence the the vil. We fired one round climate the music played. Loaded again. Then marched to the facility of the vil, fired again. Then commenced dancing. A frenchman danced ~ above his head <2> and also all danced round him for a short time then went in to a lodge & danced a while, i m sorry pleased lock verry lot they then lugged victules from different lodges & of various kinds the diet, they carried us likewise a quantity of corn & some buffalow Robes which they made us a present off. So we danced in various lodges untill so late in the afternoon. Then a component of the men returned come the ft the remainder remained all night in the village— “ Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 9, 107

“Two shot were fired indigenous this swivel, adhered to by a round of small arms, come welcome the new year. Captain Lewis then provided each a glass of an excellent old whiskey; and also a quick time after an additional was offered by Captain Clarke. Around 11 o"clock one of the interpreters and fifty percent of our people, went up, at the inquiry of the natives, to the village, to begin the dance; and also were adhered to some time ~ by Captain Clarke, and also three much more men. <3> The day was warm and pleasant. Captain Lewis in the afternoon issued an additional glass of whiskey; and also at night Capt Clarke and component of the males returned native the village, the rest stayed all night.” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 10, 68

“2 weapons was discharged from the Swivel to celebrate the brand-new year, a round of small arms automatically after by each man of the party, a Glass of old ardent Spirits to be given. A quick time after ~ Capt. Clark provided another. About 10 oClock one of the Intrepters & one half of the party went up to the 1st village that Mandans <4> by your request come dance. Some time ~ Capt. Clark and also 3 much more men come up also. The day was warm and also pleasant. In the afternoon Capt. Lewis Gave another glass. In the evening Capt. Clark & several of the party came home & Some remained all night.”

“This gift the an initial day of the Year, we early this morning fired turn off our Swivels twice, and also immediately after, fired a Volley of tiny Arms, in honor of the day.— Captain Lewis provided each the the party a Glass that spirit, which to be a quick time after, repeated by Captain Clark, about 10 o"Clock A. M. Among our Interpreters, and also one fifty percent of the males of our party; went up to the very first Village that the Mandan Nation, by inquiry of their Chiefs, come dance, they having actually a desire to check out our manner of dancing. The party had not to be long arrived on this Village, as soon as Captain Clarke and three an ext of the males arrived.— The guys commenced dancing, i m sorry the Natives lot admir"d, commonly signifying their approbation by a Whoop castle gave, In the evening Captain Clark and some that the guys returned, and part of the guys staid all Night in ~ the Village—“ Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 11, 115-116

January 2, 1805 a Snowey morning a party of guys go to run at the 2nd Village to Dance, Capt Lewis & the interptr visit the 2d Village, and also return in the evening” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 3, 282

“Wednesday second Jany. Snowed rapid this morning. Capt. Lewis and also the Greater component of the party went as much as the second village the the mandans a frolicking, ~ the same manner together yesterday in ~ the first village. A nomber the Indians and Squaws involved the ft from the an initial village. Carried us corn to pay our blacksmiths <1> because that repairing their Squaw axes Bridles &.C. The most of the men returned toward evening & Sd. The the ind were much diverted at seeing them dance. They provided them verry friendly &.C.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 9, 107

“The men, who continued to be at the village last night, returned. Captain Lewis, myself and also some others, went approximately the second village and also amused ourselves v dancing &c. The greater component of the day. In the evening us in general returned and also a great number that the natives, men, women and children, pertained to see us, and appeared extremely pleased.” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 10, 68

“the remainder of the men came from the village, about 10 oclock Capt. Lewis & the rest of the party who had not been went approximately the second village, <3> us danced and also amused our Selves the greater part of the i m sorry pleased the natives &c. In the night the most of the men returned home.” “our guys that had remained in ~ the Indian village last night returned; about 10 o"Clock A. M. Captain Lewis, and the remainder of our party, that had actually staid in ~ the Fort, went up to the 2nd Indian village of the Mandan nation, the party arrived on the town where lock danced, and amused themselves the greater component of the day.— This pleas"d the residents of this village exceedingly.— In the night the party went back to the Fort.” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 11, 116

“visit the Mandans v a party that the men, who danced for their amusement in the lodge the the black Cat” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 3, 282

January 16, 1805 “about thirty Mandans involved the fort to day, 6 Chiefs. Those Me ne ta rees told them they to be liars, had told lock if they pertained to the fort the whites males would death them, they had actually been with them every night, smoked in the pipe and also have to be treated well and also the whites had danced for them, observing the Mandans were bad and also ought to hide themselves” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 3, 275

March 22, 1805 “Visited through the 2nd Chief of the Grand village of the Minetarrees to whome we offered a medal & Some clothing acknowledging him as a 2d Chief, <2> that Delayed all night, & observed the men Dance, i beg your pardon is usual amusement through the men” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 3, 318

March 23, 1805 “in The night the males Danced” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 3, 318

March 30, 1805, at fort Mandan - acquiring ready to leave following week “All the party in high Spirits, however fiew nights pass without a Dance” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 3, 322

April 26, 1805, in ~ the confluence the the Missouri River and also the Yellowstone flow in present-day western north Dakota “found them every in great health, and also much pleasure at having arrived at this long wished because that spot, and in order to add in part measure come the basic pleasure which appeared to pervade our small community, we ordered a dram to be issued to every person; this soon produced the fiddle, and also they invested the night with lot hilarity, singing & dancing, and seemed as perfectly come forget their previous toils, together they appeared regardless of those come come.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 4, 70

June 9, 1805, in ~ the junction the the Missouri River and also Maria"s flow in present-day Montana “In the night Cruzatte gave us some music ~ above the violin and the males passed the night in dancing singing &c and were extreemly cheerfull.— Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 4, 272

“Send out 7 guys to make a cache or feet to burry the Stores, air the end Cloathes &c. &c. Finish"d the cache or Seller &c. The men all engaged dressing skins for your clothes, in the night the party amused us danceing and also Singing Songes in the many Social manner.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 4, 274

“in the night the Capts. Revived the party through a dram. They had a frolick fiddled & danced & Sang untill so late in the evening.” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 9, 165

“towards evening we had actually a frolick. The officers provided the party a dram, the fiddle played and also they danced so late &c” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 11, 191

June 25, 1805, follow me the Missouri flow at the great Falls in present-day north-central Montana “The party that returned this evening to the reduced camp reached it in time to take it one canoe ~ above the plain and prepare their baggage for an early start in the morning after i beg your pardon such together were able come shake a foot amused us in to dance on the green to the music the the violin which Cruzatte dram extreemly well.” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 4, 332

“the party amused themselves with danceing untill 10 oclock all Chearfullness and great humer, they every tied up their loads to make very early Start in the morning.” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 4, 333

“the party amused us dancing untill 10 oclock all in cheerfulness and an excellent humour. We tied up every the baggage prepared for an eairly Steart in the morning” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 9, 174

“the party every one of us amused ourselves through dancing untill 10 oC. All in cheerfulness and an excellent humor. Us all harnised up our earlier loads the the package to make an eairly Steart in the morning.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 11, 211 July 4, 1805, portaging the an excellent Falls “our job-related being at an end this evening, we provided the guys a drink that sperits, it being the last of our stock, and also some of them showed up a little sensible that it"s impacts the fiddle to be plyed and they danced an extremely merrily untill 9 in the evening as soon as a heavy shower of rain put an end to that part of the amusement tho" they continued their mirth v songs and festive jokes and were extreemly funny untill late at night. We had actually a an extremely comfortable dinner, the bacon, beans, suit dumplings & buffaloe beaf &c. In short we had no just cause to covet the sumptuous feasts of our countrymen on this day.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 4, 362

“the party amused themselves danceing untill late once a shower of rain broke up the amusement, all lively and also Chearfull” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 4, 362

“it being the 4th of independence we drank the critical of our ardent Spirits except a little reserved for Sickness. The fiddle put in order and the party amused us dancing every the night untill about 10 clock in a Sivel & jovil manner” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 9, 179

“A part of the men were busily involved at the boat, and other in dressing skin for clothing, until about 4 o"clock in the afternoon, as soon as we drank the critical of our soul in celebrate the day, and also amused ourselves with dancing it rotates 9 o"clock at night, as soon as a shower of rain fell and also we retirement to rest.” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 10, 109

“towards night our officers gave the party the critical of the ardent Spirits except a tiny reserved for Sickness. We all amused ourselved dance untill 10 oclock in the evening. In ~ which time we had actually a light Shower that rain, the party all in good Spirits maintaining up the fourth of July &c. As Independence.”

“Towards night Our officers gave the party the critical of the ardent soul that we had (excepting a little that they reserved for sickness)— us amused ourselves v frolicking, dance &ca. Untill 9 o"Clock P. M. In honor of the day.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 11, 217-218

August 26, 1805, through the Shoshone Indians, close to present-day Tendoy, i would “matters gift thus far arranged i directed the violin to be played and also the party danced really merily much to the amusement and also gratification that the natives, despite I need to confess that the state of my very own mind in ~ this moment did no well accord v the prevailing mirth as I somewhat feared the the caprice of the indians might suddenly induce them to withhold their steeds from us without i m sorry my wishes of prosicuting my voyage to advantage was lost; yet I figured out to store the indians in a good humour if possible, and to loosened no time in obtaining the necessary number of horses.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 5, 173

“... Us wished to acquisition 20 more horses. That stated the Minnetarees had actually stolen a good number the their equines this spring, but he still hope he can spare united state that number. In order not to shed the current favorable moment, and also to save the Indians together cheerful as possible, the violins were carried out and also our guys danced, to the an excellent diversion the the Indians. This mirth to be the more welcome because our situation was not exactly that i m sorry would many dispose us to gayety; for we have actually only a little parched corn to eat, and also our way of subsistence or the success count on the wavering temper the the natives, who may readjust their minds to-morrow.” Coues, history of the Expedition, Vol. 2, 553; Biddle, history of the Expedition, Vol 1, 418

“we Camped close to the lodge amongst the natives. We danced a while this evening. Lock assembled come see united state they all show up verry peaceable and also friendly.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 9, 211

“ we danced a little this evening. The natives assembled to see us. They all appeared verry friendly and peaceable.”

“The Indians had actually prepared a big lodge because that us, which put in the center of your lodges, below we unloaded ours baggage, and also deposited it. The ind had around 30 lodges here, i m sorry was populated by Indian Men, ladies & Children, yet their numbers we did no ascertain— In the night our party had a dance & the Natives all attended, they appeared pleased through our mode of dancing, and also behaved really peacable & friendly come us. Castle were dubbed the So-so-nee, or line Indians.” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 11, 285-286

October 8, 1805, with the Nez Perce Indians, ~ above the Clearwater River, in contemporary Idaho “after dark us played the fiddle and also danced a little. The natives to be pleased to watch us.” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 11, 344

October 9, 1805 “After it to be dark few of the party began to play on a Violin and the others fell to a dancing, This pleasure the Natives very much, & they appeared delighted in ~ our manner of dancing, these Natives continued at ours Camp every Night & one of the ladies that were amongst them to be taken with a crazy fit. This Woman started with singing in the Indian language, and also then offered all the was round her some roots, & every those that she offer"d lock to, had actually to take them. One of our guys refused taking them indigenous her, in ~ which she thrived Angry, and also hove castle in the fire, and took from she husband who stood near her, a sharp flint stone, and also cut her Arms in plenty of places” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 11, 345

“in the evening few of our party fiddled and danced, i m sorry pleased the natives verry much.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 9, 235

October 19, 1805, through the Walla Walla indians on the Columbia River near present-day Umatilla, Oregon “P. Crusat play on the Violin which pleasd and astonished those reches who space badly Clad” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 5, 303

“Soon after us landed which to be at a fiew pasture trees around 100 Indians come from the different Lodges, and a variety of them carried wood which they gave us, us Smoked with all of them, and two of our Party Peter Crusat & Gibson play on the violin which happy them greatly” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 5, 306

“We received them in as kind a manner together we could, exhilaration with all of them, and gave the principal chief a string of wampum; but the highest possible satisfaction they enjoyed was the music of two of our violins, through which lock seemed much delighted.” Coues, background of the Expedition, Vol 2, 649; Biddle, background of the Expedition, Vol 2, 23

October 24, 1805, through the Wasco / Wishram indians on the Columbia River near present-day The Dalles, Oregon “found Capt Lewis & a chef from listed below with maney the his males on a visit come us, one of our Party Pete Crusat play on the violin i m sorry pleased the Savage, the guys danced” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 5, 329

“The principal Chief from the country below with number of of his men visited us, and afforded a favourable oppertunity of bringing about a item and an excellent understanding between this chief and also his people and also the 2 Chiefs that accompanied united state which we have the Satisfaction come Say we have actually accomplished, as we have actually every reason to believe and that those two bands or countries are and will be on the most friendly terms with each other. Provided this good Chief a Medal and also Some other articles, that which he was much pleased, Peter Crusat play on the violin and also the men danced which happy the nativs, that Shew every civility towards us. We Smoked v those world untill so late at night, when every one retirement to rest.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 5, 335-336

October 26, 1805 “They deturmined to remain with us all night, we had actually a fire made for them & one male played top top the violin i m sorry pleased them lot my Servent danced” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 5, 341

“we offered to every Chief a Meadel the the tiny Size a red Silk handkerchief, eight band, Knife & a item of Paint, and acknowledged them as chiefs; as we believed it necessary right now to law those civilization verry friendly & ingratiate our Selves with them, come insure us a type & friendly agree on our return, us gave little presents to Several, and half a Deer come them come eate. Us had additionally a fire made for those human being to Sit roughly in the center of ours Camp, and Peter Crusat played on the violin, i m sorry pleased those nativs exceedingly. The two Chiefs and several males deturmined to delay all night (yorked Danced because that the Inds) through us...... “Dried all our wet articles and repared our Canoes to day, and also the Party amused us at night danceing.” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 5, 343

October 29, 1805, with the Klickitat Indians along the Columbia River near present-day Lyle, Washington “we to buy of those human being 3 dog they provided us High shrub cramburies, <11> bread of roots and roots, they were pleased with musick of th violin.” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 5, 350

“we purchased 3 dogs for the party come eate; us Smoked through the men, all muche pleased with the violin” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 5, 353

“On our first arrival they appeared surprised, yet not alarmed, and we soon ended up being intimate by means of smoking and also our favourite entertainment for the Indians, the violin.” Coues, background of the Expedition, Vol 2, 678; Biddle, history of the Expedition, Vol 2, 49

April 16, 1806, v the Wasco / Wishram Indians along the Columbia River near present-day The Dalles, Oregon “Peter play the violin and the men danced.” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 7, 127

“after part Serimony I entered the home of the Chief. Ns then notified them that I would certainly trade through them for their equines in the morning for which ns would provide for each horse the articles which i had available yestered. The Chief collection before me a huge platter the Onions which had been Sweeted. I gave a component of those onions to all my party and we every eate of them, in this State the root is very Sweet and the tops tender. The nativs requested the party to dance which they were readily consented and Peter Cruzat play on the Violin and also the guys danced number of dances & retired to remainder in the dwellings of the 1st and 2nd Cheif.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 7, 128

April 23, 1806, v the Tenino indians on the Columbia river at rock Creek, near present-day Roosevelt, Washington “after we had arranged our camp we caused all the old and brave males to collection arround and also smoke through us. We had actually the violin played and some of the men danced; after which the natives entertained us v a dance after your method. <2> this dance differed from any kind of I have yet seen. They created a circle and all sung also the spectators together the dancers who performed in ~ the circle. These inserted their sholders in addition to their robes tightly drawn around them and danced in a heat from next to side, numerous parties of indigenous 4 to 7 will be performing in ~ the circle at the exact same time. The totality concluded v a premiscuous dance in which most of castle sung and danced. These world speak a language very comparable to the Chopunnish whome they likewise resemble in their dress their ladies wear lengthy legings mockersons shirts and robes. Your men also dress with legings shirt robes and mockersons. ~ the run was finished the ind retired in ~ our request and also we retirement to rest. We had all our equines side hubbled and turned out to graize; at this village, a huge creek <3> drops in ~ above the N. Side which we did not observe together we decended the river. The river is through no method as fast as once we decended or at least not obstructed with those dangerous rapids the water at existing covers many of the rocks in the bed of the river. The natives promised come barter their equines with us in the morning we therefore entertained a hope that us shall be allowed to proceede by floor from for this reason with the whole of our party and also baggage.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 7, 160

“we caused all the old & brave males to set around and also Smoke v us. We resulted in the fiddle to be played and also Some the the men danced. After lock the nativs danced. They dance various from any type of Indians I have actually Seen. Castle dance with their Sholders together and pass from next to Side, defferent next passing each other, from 2 come 7. And 4 parties danceing in ~ the same time and also Concluding the run by happen promiscuisly throu & beetween each other. After which we sent out of the Indians and retired come bed.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 7, 161

“After arranging the camp us assembled all the warriors, and also having smoked through them, the violins were produced, and also some that the guys danced. This civility was reverted by the indians ....” Coues, history of the Expedition, Vol 3, 964; Biddle, history of the Expedition, Vol 2, 251

“the natives are plenty of at this place. They had actually a dance at our fire this evening. Nearly the exact same manner & means as those top top the Missourie. Us played the fiddle and also danced &C. Number of of the level heads proceed on with us & assist us as much as lyes in your power.” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 9, 296

April 25, 1806, through the Walla Walla, Klickitat, and Umatilla Indians, along the Columbia River near present-day Alderdale, Washington “had the fiddle play at the request of the natives and some that the males danced.” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 7, 166

“a Chief end took us. We had the fiddle played by the inquiry of the nativs and Some that the guys danced.” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 7, 168

“The Pishquitpahs happen the night v us; at your request the violin to be played, and also some of the males amused themselves with dancing. In ~ the exact same time we thrived in obtaining two horses at nearly the very same prices i beg your pardon had currently been refuse in the village.” Coues, history of the Expedition, Vol 3, 968-969; Biddle, history of the Expedition, Vol. II, 254

“our officers purchased two steeds from the indians who complied with us, together they wished come hear the fiddle us played & danced a small to you re welcome them.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 9, 297

April 28, 1806, close to present-day Walla Walla, Washington. The Chimnahpoms space the Yakima Indians. “a tiny before sunset the Chymnahpos arrived; castle were around 100 men and a couple of women; they join the Wallahwollahs who were about the exact same number and also formed a half circle arround our camp where they waited very patiently to view our party dance. The fiddle to be played and the guys amused themselves v dancing about an hour. Us then asked for the indians to run which they an extremely cheerfully complyed with; they continued their dance untill 10 in ~ night. The entirety assemblage of indians about 550 guys women and also children sung and danced in ~ the exact same time. Most of castle stood in the same place and also merely jumped increase to the time of their music. Some of the males who to be esteemed many brave gone into the an are arrond which the key body were developed in solid column, and also danced in a circular way sidewise. At 10 P. M. The dance concluded and also the natives retired; lock were much gratifyed with seeing some of our party sign up with them in your dance.” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 7, 178-179

“a little before Sun collection the Chim nah poms arrived; castle were around 100 men and also a fiew women; they joined the Wallah wallahs that were around 150 men and formed a half Circle arround ours camp where they waited verry patiently to check out our party dance. The fiddle to be played and also the guys amused themselves with danceing about an hour. Us then asked for the indians to run untill 10 at night. The entirety assemblage that Indians about 350 men women and Children Sung and also danced at the exact same time. Most of them danced in the Same ar they Stood and mearly jumped increase to the time of their musick. Several of the males who to be esteemed most brave gone into the room around i m sorry the main body were formed in hard Column and danced in a one manner side wise. At 10 p M. The run ended and also the nativs retired; they were lot gratified in Seeing few of our Party join them in their dance. One of their party who made himself the most Conspicious character in the dance and Songs, we were told to be a Medesene man & can foretell things. That he had actually told of ours Comeing right into their Country and was now around to top his God the moon if what we claimed was the reality &c. &c.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 7, 180-181

“our Intrepters wife found a mrs of hir own country who was a prisoner amongst these Indians, and as they could Speak with each other our officers Spoke come the head cook & told that our business and also that the white human being would it is provided them v marchandize in ~ the head that the Missourie &C. Asked for canoes to overcome the river they stated they wished united state to stay with them to day as we lived a an excellent way off, and they wished come See us dance this night & begged on united state to stay this day. For this reason our officers concluded to remain this day......... The chief referred to as all his people and also told castle of the meddicine &C. Which was a good wonder amongst them & castle were lot pleased &C. The Indians sent their females to gether lumber or Sticks to See united state dance this evening. Around 300 that the natives assembled come our Camp we played the fiddle and danced a while the head chief called our officers that they need to be lonesome as soon as we left them and also they wished come hear once of our meddicine song and try to discover it and also wished us to discover one that theirs and also it would make castle glad. So our males Sang 2 songs which appeared to take an excellent affect on them. They tryed to discover Singing through us with a short voice. The head chief climate made a speech & that was repetitive by a warrier the all could hear. Then all the Savages guys women and also children of any kind of Size danced creating a circle round a fire & jumping up almost as other Indians, & keep time verry well they wished our guys to dance with them So we danced amongst them and they were much pleased, and also Said the they would dance day and also night untill we return. Everry fiew minutes among their warries make a speech pointing towards the enimy and towards the moon &C. &C which was all recurring by one more meddison male with a louder voice together all could hear. The dance continued untill around midnight then the most of lock went away peaceable & have actually behaved verry clever and honest v us together yet, and also appear to have a Sincere wish to be at peace and also to git acquaintance v us &C &C” Moulton, The definitive Journals, Vol 9, 299

April 29, 1806, through the Walla Wallas, near present-day Wallula, Washington “they insisted on ours dancinq this evening however it rained a tiny the wind go out hard and also the weather to be cold, we therefore did not indulge them.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 7, 183

May 10, 1806, through the Nez Perce Indians, on Lawyer Creek, southwest of present-day Kamiah, Idaho “Some that the women pitched a animal leather lodge and also brought lumber & make a fire in it and chiefs invite our officers to remain in it, and talked with each other our officers told them our business &C. In the evening us played the fiddle and danced a if a variety of Indians came from various other villages to view us” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 9, 308

May 11, 1806 “ in the evening us fiddled and also danced a while. The natives assembled to view us.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 9, 309

June 8, 1806, at contemporary Kamiah, Idaho “several foot gyeongju were run this evening in between the indians and our men. The indians are really active; one of them verified as fleet as Drewer and also R. Fields, our swiftest runners. Once the racing to be over the men separated themselves into two parties and also played jail base, by method of exercise which us wish the guys to take previously to entering the mountain; in short those who space not hunters have had so small to carry out that they space geting reather lazy and also slouthfull — ~ dark we had actually the violin played and also danced for the amusement that ourselves and also the indians.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 7, 347

“in the evening several foot gyeongju were operation by the males of our party and also the Indians; ~ which our party divided and played at prisoners base untill night. After ~ dark the fiddle to be played and also the party amused us in danceing.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 7, 347

“our party worked out themselves running and playing games called base in the night danced after ~ the fiddle together the Indians were anxious to watch them.”

September 14, 1806, along the Missouri River near present-day Leavenworth, Kansas “our party got a dram and Sung Songs till 11 clock at night in the greatest harmoney.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 8, 360

September 25, 1806, in St. Louis, Missouri “had every one of our skin &c. Suned and Stored away in a Storerooom the Mr. Caddy Choteau. Payed some visits of form, to the gentlemen of St. Louis. In the evening a dinner & Ball.”

Footnote: “The affair was hosted at william Christy’s tavern. Eighteen toasts were drunk, starting with one to chairman Jefferson, “The girlfriend of science, the polar star that discovery, the philosopher and the patriot,” and ending through “Captains Lewis and also Clark - your perilous services endear them come every American heart.” Moulton, The critical Journals, Vol 8, 372