By 1860, The United States had settled A) its boundaries with both Canada and Mexico. B) its boundary with Canada, but not Mexico. C) its boundary with Mexico, but not Canada. D) neither its Canadian nor Mexican boundaries.

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In 1815, Spain held title to all of the following present-day lands EXCEPT A) Louisiana. B) Texas. C) Utah. D) California.
According to agreements made in 1818 and 1827, the United States and Great Britain A) divided the Oregon territory at the 49th parallel. B) jointly occupied Oregon. C) engaged in joint explorations of the Northwest. D) cooperated in the fur trade.
14) Americans were attracted to Texas in the 1820s by the A) flourishing trade in bison robes and cowhides. B) demand of Mexicans for American products. C) prospect of mining for precious metals. D) lure of cheap land for cotton cultivation.
15) Eastern Indian tribes from the South and Old Northwest, whom the American government forcibly relocated in the West A) strengthened Native American resistance to further white expansion. B) received permanent protection of their new lands. C) served ironically as agents of white civilization. D) converted the Plains Indians to agricultural enterprises.
16) In his popular Emigrants" Guide to Oregon and California (1845), Lansford Hastings A) defended the rights of Native Americans to certain lands of the Northwest. B) maintained that California belonged rightfully to the United States rather than Mexico. C) applauded the concept of joint occupation of Oregon with the British. D) provided both practical information as well as encouragement for frontier settlers.
17) The slogan "Manifest Destiny" referred to the conviction of Americans in the 1840s that the United States had a(n) A) God-given right to exist as a nation. B) obligation to spread across the continent. C) destiny to conquer the world. D) opportunity to replace greed with benevolence.
18) In the Transcontinental Treaty of 1819, the United States A) accepted a southern border excluding Texas. B) surrendered its claims to Florida. C) purchased southern Arizona from Mexico. D) recognized the independent Republic of Fredonia.
19) As a result of Mexican restrictions in Texas, American settlers there A) converted to Roman Catholicism. B) freed their slaves. C) disallowed further American immigration. D) plotted a revolution.
20) With the victory at San Jacinto in 1836, Texas A) won recognition from the Mexican Congress. B) lost heroes Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie. C) secured admission to the United States. D) gained its independence from Mexico.
21) Democrats such as Lewis Cass and Stephen Douglas supported the annexation of Texas on the grounds that it would A) expand the institution of slavery. B) spread the benefits of American civilization. C) secure the reelection of John Tyler. D) ease sectional tensions within the United States.
22) In 1845, President Polk sent to Mexico City A) General Zachary Taylor. B) agent John L. Slidell. C) Secretary of State James Buchanan. D) diplomat Nicholas Trist.
23) President Polk fired diplomat Nicholas Trist for A) failing to negotiate an end to the Mexican War. B) denouncing the war as one of greed and conquest. C) revealing sordid examples of army misbehavior in Mexico. D) offering too much money for too little land.
24) All of the following factors nourished an American conviction that California must become part of the United States EXCEPT the A) desire of newcomers to blend into California society. B) gradual recognition of California"s fine harbors. C) favorable position of California for the China trade. D) suspicion that other nations had designs on the region.
25) The town of Sante Fe was A) settled by Americans in the 1820s to promote trade. B) captured and annexed by Texans in 1841. C) occupied without a shot by American forces in 1846. D) fiercely guarded and protected during the Mexican War.
26) In the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848), the United States agreed to A) receive $15 million in reparations from Mexico. B) pay $10 million for large tracts of land in New Mexico. C) collect all outstanding American claims against Mexico. D) guarantee the civil and political rights of former Mexican citizens.
27) Between 1842 and 1845 in Oregon A) the number of American settlers gradually declined. B) the British expanded their interests in the fur trade. C) American settlers wrote a constitution and elected a legislature. D) most Americans located north of the Columbia River.
28) In reference to the Oregon question, President Polk A) recommended a continued joint occupation with Britain. B) supported a division of the territory at the 49th parallel. C) demanded a "fifty-four forty or fight" resolution. D) exercised great tact and skill in achieving compromise.
29) Britain agreed to a division of the Oregon territory at the 49th parallel so long as it retained possession of A) Vancouver Island. B) the Puget Sound. C) the Columbia River. D) the Willamette Valley.
30) Most of the emigrants who headed for the Far West were A) white and American-born. B) slaveholders from the Deep South. C) members of the poorest class. D) Asians, especially from China.
31) Perhaps most emigrants to the Far West were motivated by dreams of A) bringing Christianity and education to the Indians. B) bettering their lives by cultivating the land. C) restoring their health by escaping debilitating sicknesses. D) making a fortune by the mining of gold.
32) The Preemption Acts during the 1830s and 1840s A) reserved choice public lands for the political elite. B) increased the minimum amount of public land purchases. C) encouraged westward migration by protection of "squatters" rights." D) offered free government land to prospective settlers.
33) For most emigrants on the overland trails A) drawing up rules and electing officers prevented dissension. B) the trip proved novel and even enjoyable. C) a traditional division of labor persisted through the journey. D) difficulties multiplied as the trip lengthened.
34) In contrast to the travel journal of Robert Bode, the travel journal of Mary Stuart Bailey reveals a greater preoccupation with the A) conditions of travel. B) availability of food. C) absence of the familiar. D) tools of survival.
35) The first task facing pioneer farmers was to A) locate a suitable claim. B) clear the land. C) construct a crude shelter. D) plant a crop.
36) In Oregon, early settlers seemed most anxious and able to establish A) public schools. B) organized churches. C) a political system. D) social clubs.
37) Obstacles hindering the organization of churches and schools in the frontier communities included all of the following EXCEPT the A) dispersity of the population. B) lack of determination to reestablish familiar institutions. C) chronic shortage of cash. D) geographic mobility of the settlers.
38) In contrast to the agricultural frontier, migrants to the mining frontier were more A) often married and older in age. B) isolated from their neighbors. C) intent on making a quick profit. D) successful in establishing local government.
39) Between 1848 and 1883, California gold A) supplied over two-thirds of the world"s supply. B) transformed Los Angeles from a sleepy town into a bustling metropolis. C) provided equal investment opportunities for California"s minority populations. D) fueled the agricultural and commercial development of California and Oregon.
40) The Mormon emigrants to Utah A) concentrated on converting rather than killing Native Americans. B) maintained a strict separation of church and state. C) encouraged polygamous family life for all new settlers. D) lived as independent farmers on individual homesteads.
41) Nineteenth-century western cities A) grew extremely slowly. B) tended to have more male than female residents. C) attracted many families and single women. D) offered excellent opportunities to newcomers who had no capital.
42) Most of the Plains Indians A) fought fierce battles to exterminate their enemies. B) lived a nomadic lifestyle in pursuit of the buffalo. C) organized their tribes to provide strict hierarchial authority. D) immediately opposed white emigrants crossing their territory.
43) The primary cause for Indian-white conflict by the late 1840s was the A) Indian attacks on and scalpings of white emigrants. B) refusal by President Polk to provide compensation for lost Indian lands. C) destruction of Indian grass, timber, and buffalo by white emigrants. D) Indian refusal to attend a general council to resolve problems.
44) In return for various presents offered by the United States government at the Fort Laramie Council of 1851, participating Indian chiefs pledged that their tribes would A) never attack white emigrants. B) end all tribal warfare. C) move to lands farther west. D) limit their movements to prescribed areas.
45) For Mexicans living in territory annexed by the United States, the influx of Anglos A) often meant increased oppression rather than opportunity. B) guaranteed their land holdings would increase in value. C) seldom threatened the dominance of Spanish-speaking residents. D) made no impact on their influence and prestige.
46) "Bursts of florid rhetoric accompanied territorial growth, and Americans used the slogan "Manifest Destiny" to justify and account for it." If something is manifest, it is A) ordained by God. B) clearly apparent. C) secret in design. D) singular or unique.
47) "Frederick Douglass accused the country of "cupidity and love of dominion."" Cupidity is the "crime" of A) prejudice. B) greed. C) negligence. D) immorality.
48) "Still more Mormons came the next year, inspired by visions of a new Zion in the West." A Zion is a A) godly community. B) place of great luxury. C) land of opportunity. D) scenic area.

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49) "Joseph Smith and other church leaders had secretly practiced polygamy in the early 1840s...." For Mormons, polygamy was the practice of A) sharing all lands and profits. B) worshipping many gods. C) electing several church leaders. D) having more than one wife.
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