Father:William Smith, 1706, January 29, Charlestvery own, Massachusetts, died 1783, September, Weymouth, Massachusetts. He was a Congregationalist minister.

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Mother:Elizabeth Quincy, born 1721, Braintree, Massachusetts, passed away 1775, Weymouth, Massachusetts; married in 1740. She was the daughter of John Quincy, a member of the colonial Governor's council and also colonel of the militia. Mr. Quincy was additionally Speaker of the Massachusetts Assembly, a post he organized for 40 years until his death at age 77. He passed away in 1767; three years into his granddaughter Abigail Smith's marriage to John Adams, and also his interemainder in government

and also his career in public business influenced her.

Ancestry:English, Welsh; Abigail Adams' paternal great-grandpa, Thomas Smith, was born 1645, May 10, and also immoved to Charleston, Massachusetts from Dartmouth, England also. One of her great-great-great-good grandmothers came from a Welsh family members. Her well-researched ancestral roots precede her birth some 6 centuries and are traced earlier to royal lines in France, Germany kind of, Belgium, Hungary, Holland, Spain, Italy, Ireland also and also Switzerland also.

Birth Order and also Siblings:Second born; one brother, 3 sisters, Mary Smith Cranch (1741-1811), William Smith (1746-1787), Elizabeth Smith Shaw Peabody (1750-1815)

Physical Appearance:5' 1", brvery own hair, brvery own eyes

Religious Affiliation:Congregationalist; she was buried in the Unitarian faith of her husband also.

Education:Although Abigail Adams was later recognized for advocating an education in the public schools for girls that was equal to that given to boys, she herself had actually no formal education. She was taught to check out and write at home, and also provided accessibility to the extensive libraries of her father and also maternal grandfather, taking a special interest in ideology, theology, Shakespeare, the classics, primitive background, federal government and also legislation.

Occupation prior to Marriage:No documentation exists to indicate any type of involvement of Abigail Adams as a young woman in her father's parsonage tasks. She rereferred to as that in her earliest years, she was frequently in bad health and wellness. Reading and matching via family members and also friends lived in most of her time as a young woman. She did not play cards, sing or dance.

Marriage:19 years old, married 1764, October 25 to John Adams, lawyer (1735-1826), in Smith family residence, Weymouth, Massachusetts, wed in matrimony by her father, the Reverfinish Smith. After the ceremony, they drove in a horse and carriage to a cottage that stood alongside the one wbelow John Adams had been born and raised. This became their first home. They relocated to Boston in a series of rented homes before buying a big farm, "Peacefield," in 1787, while John Adams was Minister to Great Britain.

Children:Three sons and two daughters;

Abigail " Nabby " Amelia Adams Smith

(1765–1813),John Quincy Adams (1767–1848), Susanna Adams (1768–1770), Charles Adams (1770–1800), Thomas Boylston Adams (1772–1832)

Occupation after Marriage:Abigail Adams provided birth to her first boy ten days shy of nine months after her marriage, therefore working virtually instantly as a mother. She likewise common through her husband also the management of the household finances and the farming of their property for sustenance, while he additionally practiced regulation in the nearby city of Boston.

When John Adams checked out Philadelphia in 1774 to serve as his colony's delegate to the First Continental Congress, Abigail Adams continued to be residence. The separation motivated the start of a lifelong correspondence between them, developing not just a affluent archive that reflected the advancement of a marital relationship of the Revolutionary and also Federal eras, but a chronology of the public problems debated and also confronted by the brand-new nation's leaders. The letters reflect not just Abigail Adams' reactive advice to the political contentions and also inquiries that John posed to her, yet likewise her very own observant reporting of New England newspapers' and citizens' response to law and also news events of the American Revolution.

As the colonial fight for freedom from the mommy nation ensued, Abigail Adams was appointed by the Massachusetts Colony General Court in 1775, along with Mercy Warren and also the governor's wife Hannah Winthrop to question their fellow Massachusetts women who were charged by their word or action of staying loyal to the British crvery own and functioning against the independence activity. "…you are currently a politician and also now elected into a crucial office, that of judges of Tory women, which will provide you, normally, an influence through your sex," her husband composed her in response to the appointment. This was the initially circumstances of a First Lady that organized any type of quasi-official federal government place.


As the 2nd Continental Congress drew up and also discussed the Declaration of Independence via 1776, Abigail Adams started to push the argument in letters to her husband also that the creation of a brand-new form of federal government was an opportunity to make equitable the legal standing of womales to that of guys. Despite her incapability to convince him of this, the text of those letters ended up being some of the earliest recognized writings calling for women's equal legal rights.


Separated from her husband also as soon as he left for his diplomatic service as minister to France, and also then to England in 1778, she kept him indeveloped of residential politics while he confided international affairs to her. She joined him in 1783, experimenting France and England also, obtained in the latter country by the king. Upon their rerevolve, throughout John Adams' tenure as the initially Vice President (1789-1797), Abigail Adams invested part of the year in the resources cities of New York and Philadelphia, while Congress remained in session.

Presidential Campaign and also Inauguration:As a lot of her political function was conducted in correspondence, so also was Abigail Adams's energetic interemainder in her husband's two presidential projects, in 1796 and 1800, as soon as his main challenger was their close friend, anti-Federalist Thomas Jefferchild. Caring for her husband's dying mommy Abigail Adams was unable to attfinish his March 4, 1797 inaugural ceremony in Philadelphia. She was very conscious, yet, of exactly how their lives would adjust that day, through "a sense of the duties, the necessary trusts, and plenty of duties associated via it . " Although she reliburned a great political conversation, she raising uncovered it a profession beset by “envy, hatred, malice, and also all uncharitableness" in all three branches of federal government.

Her caution about their old frifinish Thomas Jeffersonhad grown to mistrust by this point, he having actually come in second in the presidential election campaign versus her husband and, in the old device, was hence asserted the brand-new Vice President. She heard a rumor that Jefferson’s close friend James Madichild had been appointed as Minister to France by outgoing President George Washington( false rumor ) and also shelp she believed Madiboy was a man of integrity once it involved his principals yet questioned those principals.

Knowing that her every word, be it created or spoken, would be examined, criticized, ridiculed and used against the brand-new Administration, she caught herself in the middle of writing one political missive.“ My pen runs riot, ” Abigail Adams feartotally concluded the letter to her husband. “ I forobtain that it need to grow careful and prudent. I fear I shall make a dull company once such limitations are lhelp upon it. ”

Not lengthy after Adams had actually been elected, Mrs. Adams also compared the prospect of ending up being First Lady to being “fastened up hand also and foot and tongue to be shot at as our Quincy lads carry out at the bad geese and turkies.” She elaborated further, in one more letter at the time: “ I have been so provided to liberty of sentiment that I recognize not exactly how to area so many type of guards around me, as will be indispensable, to look at eexceptionally word prior to I utter it, and also to impose a silence upon myself, when I lengthy to talk.”

“ I suppose to be vilified and also aboffered, ” Mrs. Adams admitted in still an additional letter. “ When I come right into this situation…” When her frifinish and fellow feminist Mercy Otis Warren wrote to Abigail Adams congratulating her on being thrust into “ this elevated position ” as the a lot of politically influential womale in the United States, the brand-new First Lady responded on the day her husband also ended up being president that, “ I shall esteem myself peculiarly fortunate, if, at the cshed of my public life, I have the right to retire esteemed, beloved and also equally respected through my predecessor."

First Lady:1797, March 4 - 1801, March 452 years old

Of the 4 years her husband also offered as President, Abigail Adams was actually current in the temporary resources of Philadelphia and then, finally, the irreversible " Federal City, " of Washington, D.C. for a total of only eighteenager months. She nonetheless made a strong impression on the push and also public.

Abigail Adams couldn’t assist herself from creating in letters and saying in public exactly what she thought. When she looked directly at Alexander Hamilton while speaking to him, for instance, she asserted that she had actually just" looked into the eyes of the devil himself."

Highly mindful of her position as the president's wife, Abigail Adams experienced her role mostly as a hostess for the public and also partisan symbol of the Federalist Party. Abigail Adams made no attempt to hide her contempt for the Anti-Federalists loyal to Jefferboy who looked for any type of possibility to publicly assault the Federalist followers of Adams. Almany automatically, the President’s Lady ended up being a famous targain of assault. The sarcastic Anti-Federalist Albert Gallatin widely spreview the story about a friend that “ heard her majesty as she was asking the names of various members of Congress and also then stated which were ‘our world. ’” Abigail Adams offered as excellent as she gained, sarcastically calling him "the sly, the artful, the insidious Gallatin..." Gallatin swarm back, dubbing her “Mrs. President, not of the United States but a faction.” However before sharp, the nickname was specific. It would stick through Abigail Adams for the rest of history.

Wounded as she was, the remark did not make Abigail Adams recede in public. She was unofficially titled " Lady Adams, " and also motivated such acknowledgment by assuming a visible ceremonial role. She was flattered in welcoming a Native American Indian chief that had actually involved accomplish the President yet felt his duty was yet in component fulfilled until he had actually additionally checked out his mommy.” She provided permission to a light infanattempt volunteer regiment to organize under the name of the

“ Lady Adams Rangers. ” And once she was heading home, north to Massachusetts, she quit to check a New Jersey federal army encampment and even reviewed the troops, reporting a little bit sheepishly to the President that, “ I acted as your proxy. ”

With such a high profile, it could therefore hardly have been a surpincrease to her that slipping out one night to the Chestnut Street Theater to hear a new and also stirring march composed to honor President Adams while " in-cog, " would be uneffective. The editor of the Aurora,a particularly vicious anti-Adams newspaper instantly known Mrs. President and also gleefully reported just how the old lady was over-wrought and ridiculously wept at this rare reflecting of support for her husband.

Often pointed out in the push, her opinions were even quoted at a New England tvery own hall meeting.Even the exclusive letters exchanged between the presidential couple can be purloined and intercepted by political opponents in the chain of the postal mechanism. It wasn’t lengthy before one of President’s Lady’s stolen letters to the President was being waved about and quoted by a male at a public conflict in Massachusetts. Abigail Adams was livid. She wrote: “ I might not think that any kind of gentleguy would certainly have actually so little delicacy or so tiny a feeling of propriety as to have actually composed a vague opinion and that of a lady, to be read in a publick assembly as an authority. That guy should have actually lost his sense.... It will serve as a lesson to be to be upon my guard. ” She did, but, add the confession that,“ I cannot say that I did not utter the expression…yet little bit did I think of having my name quoted. ”

Mrs. Adams assisted forward the interests of the Administration by writing editorial letters to family and also acquaintances, encouraging the publication of the information and also viewsuggest presented in them. She was sarcastically struck in the opplace push, her affect over presidential appointments questioned and also there were printed suggestions that she was as well aged to understand also inquiries of the day.Towards the finish of the Adams Administration, tbelow were even Anti-Federalist newspaper editorials which, in attacking President Adams for his choice of some international appointees said it was proof that his more politically astute wife was plainly not in the capital at the time of his decision, however home in Quincy bereason, “ the President would certainly not dare to make a nomicountry without her approbation < approval >. ”

Indeed, Abigail Adams supported the sentiment behind her husband's Alien and also Sedition Acts as a legal implies of imprisoning those who criticized the President in public print. Fearful of French revolutionary influence on the fledgling USA, she was unsuccessful in her urging the President to declare war with France. She stayed an adamant advocate of equal public education for womales and also emancipation of African-Amerihave the right to slaves.

Her entertainments were confined to a relatively little house in Philadelphia, turned right into a hotel after the capital was moved from Philadelphia to Washington, D.C. Although she did host a dance for her child and also his friends, she got tourists formally, seated choose a imperial number as she had saw at Buckingham Palace. She additionally attempted to affect fashion, believing that the even more revealing Napoleonic-style clothing then famous were as well indecorous.

Due to the fact that presidential households were responsible for spanning the expenses of their entertainments and also the Adamses were enduring financial obstacles at the time of his presidency, Abigail Adams's receptions were somewhat spartan.


The first First Lady to live in the White House, she resided there for 4 months, getting here in November 1800. Throughout that time she famously hung her family's laundry in the unfinished East Room to dry.

Post-Presidential Life:

When Thomas Jefferboy finally managed to defeat John Adams in his attempt to win a second term, Abigail Adams was ready to leave national politics, writing soon beforehand, she was “ Sick, sick, sick of public life.”In a November 13, 1800 letter to her child, she reflected: “ The consequence to us, personally, is, that we retire from public life. For myself…I have actually few regrets. At my age, and through my bodily infirmities, I shall be happier at Quincy. Neither my habits, nor my education, or inclicountries have actually led me to an expensive style of living, so that on that score I have actually bit to mourn over. If I did not increase via dignity, I can at least autumn with ease, which is the more hard task…I feel not any type of resentment versus those who are coming into power… ”

While her main emphasis in retirement was on her house and raising her granddaughter Susanna Adams to maturity, Abigail Adams neverthemuch less continued to be interested in nationwide political issues.


Upon discovering of Maria Jefferboy Eppes' death, Abigail Adams composed to the girl's father, President Jefferboy, for this reason initiating a rebirth of their contact and while she stayed mistrustful of his national politics, a brand-new friendship with correspondence opened up between Jefferboy and John Adams. She synchronized upon at least one occasion with her follower Dolley Madikid.

Relieved at the rerevolve of her kid John Quincy Adams from his diplomatic missions in Europe, Abigail Adams had actually an initially strained connection with his English-born wife, Louisa Catherine Johnboy. She did not live to see her boy end up being President, which developed 6 years after her fatality. When when approached for permission to publish some of her political letters, Abigail Adams refprovided, considering it imcorrect for a woman's exclusive correspondence to be publicly divulged.

However before, among her grandsons arranged for the publication of some of her well known letters in 1848, ending up being the initially publiburned book pertaining to a First Lady.

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Death:Her residence, Quincy, Massachusetts1818, October 2873 years old

Burial:First Unitarian Church, Quincy Massachusetts

*Not only is Abigail Adams buried beside her husband however additionally in addition to their kid, the sixth President and also his wife, John Quincy and also Louisa Catherine Adams.*Abigail Adams is the first of three First Ladies who is buried on the grounds of a residence of belief, the others being Louisa Adams and Edith Wilchild, buried at the National Cathedral in Washington.