The god Panic grips the Achaeans that night, and also Agamemnon calls the chieftains to council. He weeps, saying that they go residence. Diomedes speaks out against that setup, saying that he and also his co-commander Sthenalus will certainly fight, if needs be, alone. The chieftains shout their approval of his words. Nestor speaks following, arguing that they take their evening meal as usual and also that Agamemnon should provide a feastern for the chieftains. Nestor additionally proposes a setup for keeping cautious watch during the night. Agamemnon adheres to the old chieftain's advice.

After the chieftains have had actually their fill of food and also drink, Nestor advises Agamemnon to make peace through Achilles so that he will certainly rejoin the fighting. Agamemnon agrees that it was madness that made him insult their best warrior, and also prepares an market for Achilles. He will offer the excellent warrior fabulous wide range, including one of Agamemnon's very own daughters as wife and seven of Agamemnon's citadels, if only he will certainly rerevolve and also "yield place to me, inasmuch as I am the kinglier" (9. 160). Nestor proposes sending Phoenix, Great Ajax, and also Odysseus, and the heralds Odius and Eurybates.

The ambassadorial party goes to the Myrmidon encampment, and they find Achilles playing his lyre and also sitting via his beloved companion Patroclus. The two guys rise on seeing the party, and Achilles treats his guests with great courtesy, asking Patroclus to prepared food and drink for them. A great meal is prepared, via sacrifices to the gods, and Odysseus makes his proposal to Achilles. He tells him that the Achaeans are in trouble and also require their biggest fighter, and he provides Achilles Agamemnon's sell. The sell is repeated verbatim from Agamemnon's very own speech until the end, wbelow Odysseus leaves out Agamemnon's statement around Achilles needing to yield to Agamemnon's kingly majesty. Odysseus likewise adds one final, essential argument: if Achilles still hates Agamemnon, he have to resign up with the fighting out of pity for his friends and also fellow soldiers, that are being slaughtered for want of their best warrior.

Achilles responds that he will certainly not return, nor would he also if he were readily available treasures much richer and also better than those readily available by Agamemnon. The possessions, Achilles suggests, are not worth his life. His mommy has told him that he can either stay and fight and also gain great glory, or he can rerotate house and have actually a lengthy life. Achilles claims that he will choose the latter option. He and the Myrmidons will sail for residence. He asks Phoenix to rerotate via them, if he wishes. Phoenix, currently an older guy, was an exile taken in by Achilles' father Peleus. Phoenix aided to raise Achilles, and he asks Achilles to listen to him now. He tells the story of Meleager, a man that was wronged and also then out of pride refused to protect his country. He reworn down to his room through his beloved wife and also continued to be out of the fighting until the foe was cshedding in and his very own wife begged him to resign up with the fighting. Due to the fact that he realized that his wife's own safety and security would certainly be intimidated if his countryguys lost the battle, he ultimately saw battle. He drove the opponent away, however because of the enduring he had allowed to autumn on his very own human being Meleager won bit honor. Phoenix urges Achilles not to make a similar mistake. Achilles is still not moved. Ajax makes a last, angry entreaty, and Achilles responds that he will only fight if Hector comes and threa10s the ships of the Myrmidons. The ambassadorial group returns to Agamemnon, without Phoenix, who stays with Achilles. Back at Agamemnon's encampment, the news of Achilles' continued withdrawal from the war is disheartening, but Diomedes tries to raise the men's spirits.


In the start of Book 9, we watch Agamemnon crumble under the burden of leadership. Although at times Agamemnon appears weak or overbearing, the audience need to remember that he feels a lot of totally the responsibility for the stays of the Achaean troops. Agamemnon weeps until Diomedes manperiods to invigoprice the chieftains via his enthusiasm and loyalty, and also the commander-in-chief's tears are the hocolony tears of a male who understands the affect of his decisions. At the exact same time, he is limited by pride just as Achilles is. The design template of pride runs is a crucial component of every one of the interactions between Achilles and Agamemnon. Although the king attempts to attract Achilles ago into the fighting, he offers no apology to the warrior. He offers fabulous riches and also holdings, yet these presents greatly reflect the glory and kingly magnanimity of the giver. And he closes his market via the command also that Achilles yield to him and also his majesty: alert that Odysseus, constantly the strategist, delivers a lot of of Agamemnon's market to Achilles verbatim, however omits the king's command also to yield.

Achilles is aware of what is lacking from Agamemnon's market, and he responds in the terms that Agamemnon has actually set. Not every one of the product wealth in the human being can move Achilles to go back to battle. His pride is worth even more than that. Note that although Achilles states that these wealth are not worth his life, he does not weigh the value of his life versus the worth of a man's honor. Referring to his mother's prophecy for him, he tells the embassy that he will certainly select lengthy life over glory, yet he does so without making a worth judgment about which is much better.

Phoenix's story about Meleager foreshadows what will certainly occur to Achilles, and also parallels Achilles present case. As Meleager shut himself ameans via his wife, Achilles has actually shut himself amethod through his closest companion, Patroclus. Meleager was persuaded ago right into battle in part by his wife's description of what would take place to her if he continued in his refusal to fight; Achilles will return to fight one action later on, after his closest companion has actually passed away. Achilles will certainly refrain from fighting until case forces him ago into fight, and by then much needmuch less suffering will have taken place.

Achilles carries pride too far in his refusal to be moved by the enduring of his fellow soldiers. That self-absorption is component of his greatness, but it is his greatest sin too. The bitterness that his mother has promised will not come bereason of Achilles' own fatality, yet bereason tbelow is one male that Achilles will certainly not be all set to sacrifice. When Patroclus dies, Achilles will end up being frenzied with a new sort of rage, a rage that has actually its resource in grief. Part of that grief will certainly be the realization that he is in big component responsible for Patroclus' fatality.

Publication 10:


Late at night, Agamemnon and also Menelaus both uncover themselves unable to sleep. They decide to lug together a couple of of the best chieftains to decide a course of action. A handful of the best among the Achaeans gather, and Nestor asks if anyone is willing to make a nighttime scouting mission versus the Trojans. Diomedes volunteers initially, yet asks that someone go with him. Many kind of of the heroes are willing to go via him, yet Diomedes chooses Odysseus. The 2 males arm themselves, and as they set out for the enemy's camp, Athena, who has actually a one-of-a-kind love for Odysseus, sends a heron as a sign of her favor. The men market their prayers to Athena, that is the goddess of craft and shrewd, and she lis10s to them through favor.

On the Trojan side, Hector likewise calls together a team of the Trojans and also their allies, asking for a guy to scout out the Achaean positions and intentions. Dolon, Eumedes' son, is the only volunteer. He asks that as reward he be provided Achilles' equines, which have not yet been won. Hector guarantees him the excellent prize, and Dolon sets off for the Achaean camp, although the narrator tells us that he is destined to die.

Along the way, Diomedes and Odysseus intercept and capture Dolon. Odysseus assures Dolon that they will not kill him. They interrogate the terrified guy, that reveals to them the Trojan positions. Most importantly, he tells them around Rhesus, chieftain of the Thracians. Rhesus has a chariot drawn by a team of snow-white horses, the ideal Dolon has actually ever before seen, and Rhesus' armor is fit for the gods. In spite of the previously promise not to kill Dolon, Diomedes decapitates him. Odysseus praises Athena, lifting Dolon's armor and also weapons and offering them to her. They hide them prior to establishing on their way for the Thracian encampment.

When they reach the Thracian encampment, Diomedes kills the sleeping men. He murders twelve of Rhesus' cohorts and then Rhesus himself, while Odysseus pulls the corpses out of the method and readies Rhesus' splendid chariot and also horses. After killing Rhesus, Diomedes deals with a minute of indecision, torn in between killing even more and escaping, however Athena tells him to obtain on the chariot with Odysseus and escape. Apollo, angered by Athena's interference, wakes Hippocoon, cousin of Rhesus, and his wailing wakes the Trojans, who involved gape at the havoc wreaked by the Achaean marauders. Throughout the run back to the Achaean camp, Diomedes and also Odysseus soptimal briefly to pick up Dolon's weapons and also armor. They return to the Achaeans to meet the praise of their comrades. Finally, Diomedes and Odysseus bathe, eat, and provide thanks to Athena.


This exciting book is a welcome deviation from the battlefield exploits we have seen so far. Facing grim odds, Menelaus and also Agamemnon search for a means to increase the Achaeans' morale and also gain some small advantage over the enemy. What begins as a scouting mission becomes an amazing hit-and-run attack. We view Agamemnon's initiative in bringing together the chieftains, and we likewise see Odysseus' cunning in activity. This book additionally stresses the favor bestowed on Odysseus by Athena. It is favor he takes treatment to remember, praying to her and also giving offerings to her in gratitude for her assist.

This section, in enhancement to offering selection and also an amazing episode to the Iliad, reflects the prominence of the psychological facet in war. In an epic wbelow brute force plays the decisive variable in fight, where single warriors by their sheer toughness drive the whole opposing army backward, and also wbelow we rarely, if ever, view the commanders of the opposing militaries plan out anypoint we might speak to battlefield strategy, Publication 10 reflects an appreciation for a very different type of warfare. Unable to lug Achilles earlier to the battlearea, the Achaean chieftains strive to gain another type of advantage. Odysseus and Diomedes go to gather intelligence, yet it conveniently becomes clear that they are intent on winning some type of mental victory. These guerilla tactics are akin to the emotional warfare analyzed in Sun Zi's Art of War; the fatality of Rhesus and twelve of his men, also approving that his horses and also armor are magnificent, is probably not a decisive victory in regards to damage of manpower or matériel. A later play entitled Rhesus, attributed with some uncertainty to Euripides, dramatizes this nighttime rassist, adding the element that Rhesus is freshly arrived. In the play, he is a warrior so good that not even Achilles would certainly be able to oppose him. This embellishment is foreign to Homer, and also it appears to miss the suggest of the nighttime raid. The emotional factor is the necessary component of this victory. Odysseus and also Diomedes intercept and also destroy the enemy's scout; they also win excellent glory by stealing magnificent horses and also armor, while terrifying the adversary via the sight of a bloodily slaughtered ally. With bit effort, they develop uncertainty and also fear in the enemy's ranks while increasing morale among their very own pressures. The same holds true for the audience; after the disappointment and also suspense of the failed embassy to Achilles, the nighttime rhelp is a welcome and also amazing victory for our Achaean heroes.

But although Book 10 is exciting, the adendeavors of Odysseus and Diomedes have the right to also be construed in methods that are dark and also unsettling. The rhelp is not any kind of bloodier than daytime fight in terms of sheer numbers of death. But as through all mental warfare, the cold-bloodedness compelled is chilling. The image of valiant Diomedes slaughtering sleeping troops is, to say the least, unnerving, especially as soon as Rhesus' kinsguy awakes and cries out Rhesus' name in grief and horror. And the pathetic photo of Dolon begging for his life (life, incidentally, that is promised to him in good faith by Odysseus) and then being brutally murdered gives a rather darker cast to the character of Odysseus. As we saw earlier in Book 6, the Trojan War has actually escalated to brand-new levels of brutality. The gentler exercise of taking males captive and holding them for ransom has actually vanished. Time and also time aobtain throughout the epic, guys on the Trojan side ask to be spared and captured for later on ransoming. This practice mirrors the huge wide range of the Trojans, described repetitively throughout the Iliad. These repetitive researches also present that the Trojans are accustomed to a gentler form of warfare. As a wealthy and also civilized civilization, they think that money can fix difficulties even in the time of wartime. It is the Achaeans who do amethod with these niceties, bringing the war to a new pitch of ferocity.

Publication 11:


The following day, just the goddess Hate is allowed to attfinish the battlearea. The rest of the gods need to watch from afar, forbidden to interfere by Zeus. Agamemnon fights ferociously, slaughtering many Trojans and also Trojan allies, driving their forces all the means earlier to the Scaean Gates. Zeus sends out Iris to Hector to tell him to hold earlier from the fighting and also concentprice on making his troops host their ground against the Achaean onslaught. Once Agamemnon has actually been wounded, Hector will be able to drive the Achaeans back. Hector obeys. Agamemnon kills warrior after warrior, consisting of two of Antenor's sons. He is wounded while killing Coon, and also though he fights on for a while, he is required to retreat. He calls for a chariot and is taken back to the ships. Hector seizes the initiative and also urges the Trojans forward. Hector slaughters many kind of good Achaeans, scattering their forces, while Odysseus and also Diomedes struggle to stem the tide of Hector's onslaught. Diomedes and also Odysseus fight fiercely, killing many type of warriors, until Diomedes gets a clear swarm at Hector. He throws his spear yet it glances off of Hector's helmet. Hector is stunned, but he recovers, and also a moment later Diomedes is hit by among Paris' arrows. His charioteer brings him earlier to the ships. Odysseus encounters a choice: should he stay and also fight or loss back? Surrounded, he fights valiantly for a moment, killing a variety of warriors, but he is wounded horribly in the side. Only Athena's treatment preserves his life. With Odysseus wounded, the Trojans cshed in for the kill. Odysseus cries out for aid, and Menelaus and also Ajax involved rescue him.

Paris hits Machaon, among the Achaeans' ideal healers, via an arrowhead. Nestor brings Machaon ago to the ships. Cebriones tells Hector that while the Trojans have actually some advantage now, Ajax still routs part of their force. He and Hector go in that direction, battling the Achaeans fiercely however preventing man-to-guy combat via Ajax. Ajax, are afraid driven into his heart by Zeus, retreats. Ajax provides a slow, tortured retreat, harassed by countless Trojan spears and also arrows. Eurypylus tries to protect him, yet is wounded.

Achilles, watching the battle from apeak his beached ship, realizes that his repursuit to his mommy is being lugged to pass. He calls Patroclus and also sends him to ask Nestor who he is bringing back, wounded, from the battlefield. Patroclus goes to Nestor, from whom he learns of the Achaeans' dire situation: Machaon, Agamemnon, Diomedes, Eurypylus, and Odysseus are all wounded. Nestor tells Patroclus a story around brave exploits undertaken during Nestor's youth, and then he asks Patroclus to attempt to sway Achilles to rejoin the fighting. Patroclus feels good pain as soon as he sees the suffering of his comrades, and also he goes to entreat Achilles to go back to battle. On the means back, he meets Eurypylus, that has been wounded by an arrow. Patroclus postpones meeting via Achilles to tend to Eurypylus' wounds himself.


Like many kind of impersonal pressures, Hate is represented in Greek myth as a deity. She is the just goddess permitted to attfinish personally to the battlearea bereason of Zeus, and also her presence claims a lot about Homer's understanding of battle. The brutality of battle is absolutely among the poem's themes, yet the Iliad is not a pacifist's epic. Homer accepts battle as a reality of life, and recognizes that war brings out some of the the majority of admirable qualities of males. He likewise has no illusions about war's brutality. The imindividual deities connected via the battlefield are very various from the more humanized Olympian gods like Athena and also Apollo. Hate, Terror, Panic‹these are the gods that host guide in battle. Keep in mind that the positive features of men are not stood for so directly by deities. Homer renders Hate, Terror, and also Panic seem choose impersonal, mysterious pressures that come from somewright here alien and past human understanding. But tbelow is no such impersonal deity for valor or courage. These virtues inevitably have a human origin, even when divinely inspired by gods favor Zeus or Athena.

At first, Agamemnon fights well and also fiercely. In his capacities as warrior, Book 11 is his ideal hour. But disaster shortly follows: all of the significant heroes except Ajax are wounded, and also Ajax is recorded in a grim case. Homer still depicts his Achaean heroes as unequaled fighters. Keep in mind that the majority of of the Achaean champions have been wounded by arrows rather than bested in man-to-male combat. In an epic wright here the efforts of a single warrior rotate the tide of battle, the loss of every one of their champions is a devastating blow for the Greek forces.

As Achilles watches the scene unfold, we see even more of his unbelievable pride. He seems barely to alert the enduring of his fellow soldiers; he instead thinks about his mother's promise that the Achaeans will certainly lose till he retransforms to fight. Patroclus is his closest companion, yet the two males are exceptionally various. Patroclus is deeply concerned around the Achaean losses and also the wounded champions. From the tamong his greeting to Nestor, we understand by implication that Patroclus does not give of Achilles' excessive anger. Patroclus is by far the even more softhearted and compassionate of the 2 men; he is stirred to try to persuade his frifinish to return to battle. On his method back to Achilles, Patroclus shows his compassion once aacquire. When he runs into the wounded Eurypylus, he cannot aid but tend to Eurypylus' wounds himself, postponing his meeting via Achilles.

Publication 12:


Polydamas advises Hector to order the troops to dismount in order to cross the ditch and also line of stakes developed by the Achaeans. Hector takes the advice, and also the Trojans dismount other than for one commander called Asius. He and his troops charge forward yet are shortly pinned down in vicious fighting, unable to storm the rampart. As the Trojans move forward, they receive a sign: in the sky, an eagle is grasping a serpent in its talons. The serpent fights ago, and also the eagle, bloodied, is forced to release the snake. To Polydamas, the meaning is clear. Although the Trojans have actually the advantage, they will fail if they press their luck and attempt to burn the Achaean ships. The Trojans will be required to retreat, with destructive aftermath. Hector ignores the omales, scolding Polydamas through the memorable line, "One bird authorize is best: to fight in defense of our country" (12. 243).

The two Aeantes walk up and also dvery own the ramcomponents, rallying the troops. On the Trojan side, Sarpedon and also Glaucos, princes of the Lycian contingent, lead a forceful attack. Hard-pressed to speak them, Menestheseus sends out a herald to gain aid from the Aeantes and the good bowmale Teucer. Great Ajax obeys the summons, instructing Oilean Ajax to host his ground, with Lycomedes as assist, till Great Ajax have the right to return. Great Ajax and also Teucer rush off to assist Menestheus safeguard the rampart from the Lycians. Glaucos is wounded by among Teucer's arrows, and also he falls back. Sarpedon battles on, ripping a gap into the ramcomponent via his bare hands. The battle is fierce, through neither side able to push the various other from the gap. It is Zeus's decision to provide the best glory to Hector. He calls for the Trojans to fight harder, and they strike the rampart through renewed toughness. Hector smashes via the gates of the fortifications with a boulder, and also, at his cries of encouragement, his males swarmth over and with the wall. The Achaeans are thrvery own back, scattering in terror.


The interactivity between fate and also huguy agency is an essential template right here, as the will of Zeus puts a definite cap on what can and cannot be completed. Although the Lycians fight with tremendous ferocity, Homer tells us consistently that Zeus chooses to give the best glory to Hector. Hector will certainly be the first to smash through the rampart. It is important to remember that this is no random alternative. It seems unfair to say that Hector is the greatest Trojan champion simply because Zeus favors him; rather, it is feasible to argue that Zeus favors Hector bereason he is the biggest Trojan champion. However, either statement is much less than the finish fact. Almethods, the pressures of fate and totally free will coexist in an unsimple, sometimes paradoxical combicountry. This enigmatic combicountry presents itself aacquire as soon as Hector chooses to ignore the omales of Zeus. Zeus plans defeat for the Trojans, and yet he sends a authorize to warn them against taking a damaging course of activity. When Hector decides to ignore the omen, is he dooming his people? Or is it truly his decision at all? The sign seems favor it was expected to be ignored, however in that instance why sfinish it? No definitive, systematic answer emerges.

Proud Asius and his hapless troops offer us yet one more leskid on the consequences of too much pride. Refusing to heed orders to dismount and proceed on foot, Asius is pinned dvery own in a horrifying melee that dooms his contingent. This error likewise reflects that building the fortifications was not an effort in vain. To pass the ramcomponent, the Trojans will need a mixture of strategy and ferocity. Asius' proud, all-out, head-on attack has actually a lot in the method of brute pressure, yet sheer force is not enough to take the wall.

Hector, wise enough to heed Polydamas' advice, is the leader with the strategy to enable the storming of the rampart, and also he is eventually the guy through the stamina and courage to bring out the arrangement. But he commits a grave error as soon as he proudly ignores the omales of the gods and also Polydamas' interpretation. The theme of pride is here aacquire, and Hector's actions in Publication 12 show with great clarity just how pride is both stamina and weakness. Polydamas, the audience knows, is ideal. The sign is clear, and it is continual via the arrangement the audience has actually already heard from Zeus. Yet at the very same time, Hector's response is one of the a lot of memorable lines of the Iliad. He ignores the authorize and chooses to make his love for Troy and his determicountry to protect his human being the most vital determiners for his action. His valor defies fate itself. He renders an error in judgment, but if he had actually heeded Polydamas' words he would certainly not have actually won good glory by smashing via the wall.

Next SectionBooks 13-16 Rundown and AnalysisPrevious SectionBooks 5-8 Summary and AnalysisBuy Study GuideHow To Cite in MLA FormatBorey, Eddie. "Iliad Books 9-12 Synopsis and also Analysis".

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