Author: Gordana Sendic•Reviewer: Nicola McLaren MScLast reviewed: May 31, 2021Reading time: 5 minutes

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Flexor hallucis brevis muscle (Musculus flexor hallucis brevis)

Flexor hallucis brevis is a tiny intrinsic muscle of the foot. It is situated deep within the single, on the medial element. 

Plantar muscles of the foot deserve to be grouped by their place in 2 ways; right into either one of the four muscular layers of the foot or into the medial, central or lateral group. Because of its place, in the horizontal airplane the flexor hallucis brevis belongs to the medial compartment, along with the abductor and also adductor hallucis muscles. In the vertical plane, it is grouped into the third layer of plantar muscles, in addition to two other muscles; adductor hallucis and also flexor digiti minimi muscle.

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Flexor hallucis brevis is created of a medial and also lateral muscle belly whose tendons attach at the proximal phalanx of the excellent toe (hallux). At these attachment points, two sesamoid bones build, embedded in the tendons on each side.

The muscles main function is to flex the excellent toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint. However before, flexor hallucis brevis is likewise affiliated in preserving the medial longitudinal arch of the foot.

Key facts about the flexor hallucis brevis
OriginTendon of tibialis posterior, medial cuneiform bone, lateral picture writing bone, cuboid bone
InsertionLateral and medial aspects of base of proximal phalanx of great toe
ActionMetatarsophalangeal joint 1: Toe flexion; Support of longitudinal arch of foot
InnervationMedial plantar nerve (S1, S2)
Blood supplyFirst metatarsal artery (plantar arch); superficial branch of the medial plantar artery (posterior tibial artery)

This post will certainly teach you all you should understand about the anatomy and also function of the flexor hallucis brevis muscle.


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The flexor hallucis brevis is a medial plantar muscle of the foot. It is composed of two muscle bellies that differ in origin because of the muscle arising from a bifurcate tendon. The lateral head arises from the medial component of the plantar surchallenge of the cuboid bone, posterior to the groove for the fibularis longus tendon, and the surrounding surchallenge of the lateral picture writing bone. The medial head of flexor hallucis brevis arises from the lateral department of the tibialis posterior tendon and the middle band of the medial intermuscular septum.

The muscle additionally consists of lateral and also medial bellies which run anteriorly and medially towards the good toe. The distal tendon of each belly terminates by inserting onto each side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the hallux. In the procedure, the tendon of the medial belly blends through the tendon of abductor hallucis muscle, while the tendon of the lateral belly blends with the tendon of adductor hallucis muscle.

Relations

The flexor hallucis brevis is found in the third layer of the medial plantar muscles of the foot, situated between the abductor hallucis medially and also flexor digitorum brevis laterally. As the flexor hallucis brevis courses anteromedially in the direction of the proximal phalanx of the good toe, the tendon of flexor hallucis longus passes in between its medial and lateral muscle bellies to connect at the base of the distal phalanx of good toe. The medial plantar nerve lies alengthy the lateral facet of flexor hallucis brevis.


Two small hallux sesamoid bones develop within the muscles’ distal tendons, near their attachment sites on either side of the hallux. These hallux sesamoid bones are tiny paired ovoid-shaped ossicles of the foot that are installed within both the medial and lateral tendons of flexor hallucis brevis muscle bellies. As they lay on either side of the hallux, they are called the medial (tibial) and lateral (fibular) sesamoid bones of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. The hallux sesamoid bones articulate via the head of the initially metatarsal, acting as a fulcrum to boost the leverage of flexor hallucis longus and also flexor hallucis brevis.

Innervation

Flexor hallucis brevis is innervated by the medial plantar nerve (S1, S2), which is one of the terminal branches of the tibial nerve.

Blood supply

Flexor hallucis brevis muscle receives arterial blood supply from the first metatarsal artery, which branches off the convexity of the plantar arch. The plantar arch is a semicircular anastomosis formed by the medial and also lateral plantar arteries. Flexor hallucis brevis muscle is additionally provided by the superficial branch of the medial plantar artery that arises from the posterior tibial artery.


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Function

The primary attribute of the flexor hallucis brevis is flexion of the good toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint. This muscle aids the flexor hallucis longus in the toe-off phase of locomotion, boosting the final push-off from the ground during activities such as walking, running and also jumping.

The fact that the flexor hallucis brevis tendons blend with the adductor hallucis and also abductor hallucis signifies its prominence in giving stability of the great toe throughout the previously mentioned tasks, ensuring maximum force translation during the thrust phase.

Flexor hallucis brevis also plays a function in the maintenance of the medial longitudinal arch by acting as a bowstring in between the proximal phalanx of the hallux and tarsal bones. Muscular contraction brings the bones closer together, thereby raising the arch.


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Kim Bengochea, Regis College, Denver


References:

Palastanga, N., & Soames, R. (2012). Anatomy and also human movement: framework and also attribute (sixth ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingrock.Moore, K. L., Dalley, A. F., & Agur, A. M. R. (2014). Clinically Oriented Anatomy (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Standring, S. (2016). Gray"s Anatomy (41tst ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingrock.

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