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England also expects that every guy will certainly do his duty to research study pagesA probable remanufacturing of Nelson"s signal

Nelboy provided the "Telegraphic Signals or Naval Vocabulary" <1> at Trafalgar. The "England also expects that every guy will perform his duty" signal required 12 lifts which were consisted of of the following flags: 253, 269, 863, 261, 471, 958, 220, 370, 4, 21, 19 and 24. The first substitute (D?) was offered for the second 2 in 220.

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Nelkid initially asked for "England also confides that every man will execute his duty". The word "confides" did not exist in the code book, but Nelchild had actually acquiesced to Lt Pasco"s tip to relocation that word with the code for "expects". <2>

Words "duty" did not exist either and had actually to be spelled out via 4 hoists utilizing the numeric order of the letters D=4, U=21, T=19 and also Y=25. <3>

However before, two remarks are in order, concerning:

a) some historians omit "that" - code 863 - as a third "word"; yet, its inclusion, making the signal a total of 12 fairly than 11 hoists, shows up to be the most probable, however absolute proof is lackingb) the copy of the VICTORY"s Signal Publication offered at Trafalgar *was* (late C19th) in the Royal United Services Museum (it is *possibly* the copy now in the British Library referenced as "SIGNAL-BOOK for the Ships of War, 1799" : the published official code issued by the Admiralty, through MS. enhancements. Preyielded (f. 2) by a printed circular to " the corresponding captains and also commanders of His Majesty"s ships," signed by T Troubridge, , James Adams and also J Markham, Lords of the Admiralty; <21 Jan.-15 May, 1804>. Paper; ff. 118. Small quarto; this record differs from that in the National Naval Museum under reference SIG/B/76). The manumanuscript additions worry a note that admirals have to readjust the flags if there is reason to think that the opponent might have acquired possession of their meaning, and the illustration that we have put on our webpage is based on the "pasted" over flags in that copy. However before, some historians have actually believed over the years that the 1799 code flags were provided, and also tright here has actually been some question of which flag was offered as a substitute. The images - one from the Boys Own Paper of 1885, the various other a Wills cigarette card - highlight some distinctions.

Concerning the accuracy of The Boys Own Paper illustration which can appear to be out of action with modern study, it is certainly not alone. One of the even more widely welcomed referrals is Hulme"s 1894 "Flags of the World, their History, Blazonry and also Associations" which, to some extent, files the BOP variation.

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a) The signal for "that" (863) is missing; the Boy"s Own Paper of 1885 - from which the print came - continued a relatively common Victorian tradition of equating "confides that" with "expects", therefore dropping the adverbb) The staying "inaccuracies" come from replacing "substitute" via "8", "8" through "5", and "5" through "substitute" - whether one of the Popham sets was publimelted through this difference, and also whether it was an embraced variation, or a mistake is unclear. The set *should* be that of 1803 - and definitely a quick glance at Wilson"s "Flags at Sea" reflects the Boy"s Own image to be in error.Finally, as via a lot historical information, there is still and also most more than likely always will certainly be some residual factual doubt as to the precise flags used; view the 1837 James" Naval History, Vol 4, p34 "tbelow is not, that we are aware of, a single publication that gives this message specifically as it was delivered".