5332735889consciousnessour awareness of ourselves and our environment.

You are watching: During nrem-1 sleep, people may experience fantastic images that resemble

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5332735890biological rhythmsperiodic physiological fluctuations.1
5332735891circadian rhythmthe biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle.2
5332735892pineal glandsmall endocrine gland that produces the serotonin derivative melatonin, a hormone that affects the modulation of wake/sleep patterns and seasonal functions.3
5332735893Stage 1 sleepslow breathing and irregular brain waves. Very brief, may experience fantastic images resembling hallucinations, sensation of falling or floating.4
5332735894Stage 2 sleepappearance of sleep spindles. Clearly asleep, but still easily awoken; about 20 minutes.5
5332735895sleep spindlesbursts of rapid, rhythmic brain activity.6
5332735896Stage 3 sleeptransitional stage. Brain begins to emit slow delta waves. Hard to be woken.7
5332735897Stage 4 sleepbrain increasingly emits slow delta waves. About 30 minutes, hard to be woken. Children tend to wet the bed or sleepwalk during end.8
5332735898NREM sleepencompasses all sleep stages except for REM sleep.9
5332735899REM sleepa recurring sleep stage during which vivid reams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleeping, because the muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active.10
5332735900alpha wavesrelatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.11
5332735901sleepperiodic, natural loss of consciousness -- as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation.12
5332735902hallucinationsfalse sensory experiences.13
5332735903delta waveslarge, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep.14
5332735904insomniarecurring problems in falling or staying asleep.15
5332735905narcolepsya sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.16
5332735906sleep apneaa sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings.17
5332735907night terrorsa sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, these occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered.18
5332735908dreama sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person"s mind. These are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer"s delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it.19
5332735909nightmaresanxiety-arousing dreams that lead to awakening, usually from REM sleep.20
5332735910lucid dreamsdreams in which the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming.21
5332735911manifest contentaccording to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content).22
5332735912latent contentaccording to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content).23
5332735913Activation-synthesis Theorythe theory that dreams result from the brain"s attempt to make sense of random neural signals that fire during sleep.24
5332735914REM reboundthe tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep).25
5332735915hypnosisa social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors, will spontaneously occur.26
5332735916posthypnotic amnesiasupposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis; induced by the hypnotist"s suggestion.27
5332735917posthypnotic suggestiona suggestion made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors.28
5332735918dissociationa split consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.29
5332735919hidden observerHilgard"s term describing a hypnotized subjects awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis.30
5332735920psychoactive druga chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood31
5332735921tolerancethe diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug"s effect.32
5332735922withdrawalthe discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug.33
5332735923physical dependencea physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued.34
5332735924psychological dependencea psychological need to use a drug such as to relieve negate emotions.35
5332735925depressantsdrugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.36
5332735926stimulantsdrugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.37
5332735927hallucinogenspsychedelic drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.38
5332735928barbituratesdrugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement.39
5332735929opiatesopium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.40
5332735930amphetaminesdrugs that stimulate neural activity, causing sped-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes.41
5332735931ecstasy (MDMA)a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition.42
5332735932LSDa powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid (lysergic acid diethylamide).43
5332735933THCthe major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations.44
5332735934near-death experiencean altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations.45
5332735935dualismthe presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact.46
5332735936monismthe presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing.47
5332735937circadian rhythmsInternally generated patterns of body functions, including hormonal signals, sleep, blood pressure, and temperature regulation, which have approximately a 24-hour cycle and occur even in the absence of normal cues about whether it is day or night48
5332735938Disruptions to Circadian Rhythm1. jet lag2. night shifts49
5332735939Evolutionary Sleep/Dream Theorywe evolved it as part of natural selection to maximize survival. (restorative)50
5332735940Restorative Dream Theories1. protein synthesis2. maintain plasticity (memory)51
5332735941Stage 1 Sleepquick sleep stage with gradual loss of responsiveness to outside, drifting thoughts, and images (the hypnagogic state). EEGs show theta waves.52
5332735942Stage 2 SleepA sleep deeper than that of stage 1, characterized by a slower, more regular wave pattern, along with momentary interruptions of "sleep spindles". Around 50% of sleep is Stage 2.53
5332735943Stage 3 Sleepusually about 30 minutes; is transitional and leads to the fourth stage; brains starts to emit some delta waves54
5332735944Stage 4 SleepThe deepest stage of NREM sleep, characterized by an EEG pattern of more than 50% delta waves.55
5332735945REM Sleeprapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.56
5332735946lucid dreamingcontrolling dreams57
5332735947activation-synthesis theorythe theory by Robert McCarley and J. Alan Hobson that dreams result from the brain"s attempt to make sense of random neural signals that fire during sleep58
5332735948Cognitive Reason for Dreamsdreams are the interplay of the physiological triggering of brain waves and the psychological functioning of the imagination--in other words, when we"re cut off from thinking about world, we think about memories59
5332735949Psychoanalytic Reason for Dreamsdreams are the expression of the unconscious--manifest content hides the latent content60
5332735950narcolepsya condition in which an awake person suddenly and uncontrollably falls into REM sleep61
5332735951sleep apneawhen someone temporarily stops breathing during sleep--awaken the sufferer repeatedly throughout the night.cause=obstruction/collapse of air passages (obesity)cures=weight loss and sleeping on the side62
5332735952night terrorschildhood (often) sleep disrptions from Stage 4 sleep--bloodcurling scream and intense fear63
5332735953sleepwalkingaka somnambulism; (most frequently) a childhood sleep disruption, including trips from bed/complex activity. don"t usually remember in morning.64
5332735954hypnosisan altered state of consciousness resulting from a narrowed focus of attention and characterized by heightened suggestibility and deep relaxation65
5332735955dissociation theoryhypnosis=individual experiencing two or more streams of consciousness that are cut off from one another. one consciousness responds to suggestions, while the other, the "hidden observer," monitors behavior.66
5332735956Ernest Hilgardpsychologist associated with dissociation theory67
5332735957"hidden observer"one of the consciousnesses of dissociation theory--monitors behavior68
5332735958post-hypnotic amnesiaforgetting events of hypnosis by suggestion69
5332735959meditationa set of techniques used to focus concentration away from thoughts and feelings in order to create calmness, inner peace, and tranquility.70
5332735960types of waves during meditationalpha waves--like the relaxed wakefulness before sleep71
5332735961physiological changes of meditation1. slowed heart rate2. slowed breathing3. lower blood pressure4. warm hands--indicate activation of parasympathetic nervous system72
5332735962psychoactive drugsChemicals that pass through the blood-brain barrier into the brain to affect the nervous system and alter perception73
5332735963blood-brain barrierwhat the psychoactive drug must pass through to enter the brain. It is made up of blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out74
5332735964physiological dependenceaka addiction; when someone feels an intense desire to experience the drug even with the adverse effects75
5332735965tolerancedecreased responsivity to a drug76
5332735966Types of Psychoactive Drugs:1. depressants2. narcotics3. stimulants4. hallucenogens77
5332735967depressantsreduce CNS"s activity to relax; include:sedativesbarbituratestranquilizersalcohol78
5332735968sedativesdepressants taken to induce sleep and prevent siezures79
5332735969barbituratesdepressants that include Seconal/secobarbital and Luminal/phenobarbital80
5332735970tranquilizersdepressants that include benzodiazepines such as Valium, Xanax, Rohypnol ("roofies"/date rape), and quaaludes.Effects:1. relieve anxiety2. induce sleep3. prevent seizures81
5332735971alcoholmost commonly used depressant.82
5332735972how alcohol worksincreases transmission of GABA, decreases transmission of acetylcholine (excitatory neurotransmitter)83
5332735973where alcohol works (in brain)acts at reticular formation, spinal cord, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and many neurotransmitter systems84
5332735974effects of alcohollow dose=relaxation, less tension, lower inhibitions, less concetration, slower reflexes and reaction time, and poorer coordination.medium dose=slurred speech, drowsiness, and altered emotionshigh doses=vomiting, depression, unconsciousness, coma, or even death85
5332735975withdrawal symptoms of alcoholsleep problems, hallucinations, tremors, seizures86
5332735976narcoticsanalgesics/pain relievers that depress CNS or respiratory system. produce feelings of euphoria, relieve pain, and induce sleep. similar to endorphins chemically.87
5332735977types of narcoticsinclude: opiates and synthetic opiates--codeine, heroin, morphine, opium, Percodan, Darvon, Talwin, Dilaudid, mathadone, and Demerol88
5332735978stimulantspsychoactive drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that activate motivational centers of the brain, reduce activity of inhibitory centers of CNS; excite neural activity and speed up body functions; increase activity of serotonin and dopamine; used to treat narcolepsy and hyperactivity.89
5332735979amphetaminesstimulants; include methamphetamine, benzadrine, Ritalin, ephedrine (Ephedra), and ecstasy (MDMA); stimulate sympathetic nervous system and speed up metabolism-->alert, energetic, elated, and less of an appetite90
5332735980cocainepowerfully addicting drugs that produce feelings of euphoria, excitement, strength, and reduce hunger. can cause neurological and behavioral problems (dizziness, headaches, movement problems, anxiety, insomnia, depression, hallucinations, high blood pressure, and stroke). overdose-->death91
5332735981hallucenogensaka psychedelics; diverse group of psychoactive drugs that alter moods, distort perceptions, and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input (hallucinations); include: LSD/lysergic acid diethylamide, PCP/phenocyclidine, THC/marijuana, psilocybin (from mushrooms), and Peyote/mescaline.92
5332735982Consciousnessour awareness of ourselves and our environment93
5332735983Circadian Rhythmthe biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle94
5332735984REM Sleeprapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active95
5332735985Alpha Wavesthe relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake statestage 196
5332735986Sleepperiodic, natural loss of consciousness--as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation97
5332735987Hallucinationsfalse sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus98
5332735988Delta Wavesthe large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep stages 3/499
5332735989NREM Sleepnon-rapid eye movement sleep; encompasses all sleep stages except for REM sleep100
5332735990Insomniarecurring problems in falling or staying asleep101
5332735991Narcolepsya sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer my lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times102
5332735992Sleep Apneaa sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings103
5332735993Night Terrorsa sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered104
5332735994Dreama sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person"s mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer"s delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it105
5332735995Manifest Contentaccording to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream106
5332735996Latent Contentaccording to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream107
5332735997REM Reboundthe tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)108
5332735998Hypnosisa social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur109
5332735999Posthypnotic Suggestiona suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors110
5332736000Dissociationa split in consciousness, which allows some thought and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others111
5332736001Psychoactive Druga chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods112
5332736002Tolerancethe diminishing effect with regular use of the same does of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug"s effect113
5332736003Withdrawalthe discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug114
5332736004Physical Dependencea physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued115
5332736005Psychological Dependencea psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions116
5332736006Addictioncompulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences117
5332736007Barbituratesdrugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement118
5332736008Opiatesopium and its derivatives such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety119
5332736009Stimulantsdrugs that excite neural activity and sped up body functions120
5332736010Amphetaminesdrugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes121
5332736011Methamphetaminea powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels122
5332736012Ecstasy (MDMA)a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood cognition123
5332736013LSDa powerful halucinogenic drug; also known as acid124
5332736014Hallucinogenspsychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input125
5332736015Depressantsdrugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions126
5332736016Near-Death Experiencean altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death; often similar to drug-induced hallucinations127
5332736017THCthe major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations128
5332736018stage 1irregular brain activity caused by unrememberable moments: experiences fantasy images, resembles hallucinations, has twitches and lasts 10 minutes129
5332736019stage 2is more relaxed but has burst of rapid brain activity called spindles. The individual is clearly asleep in this stage even though they can be woken up: sleeptalking is in this stage130
5332736020stage 3the brain has slow delta waves which lasts for 30 minutes, the body begins to be unresponsive and the body"s metabolism decreases131
5332736021stage 4very difficult stage to be woken up from, the person doesn"t remember the stage, sleeptalking, walking and wetters are in this stage132
5332736022when do dreams occurREM133
53327360234 reasons for why we need to sleep?protection, recuperate/restore and repair brain tissue, memory, growth134
5332736024Preconsciousin Freud"s theory, the level of consciousness in which thoughts and feelings are not conscious but are readily retrieveable to consciousness135
5332736025Nonconsciousthe level of consciousness devoted to processes completely unavailable to conscious awareness (e.g., fingernails growing, blood flow)136
5332736026PsychodyanmicFree association "saying anything that comes to mind"the importance of unconscious influences, early life experiences, and interpersonal relation ships explaining behavior or in treating people with psychological problems137
5332736027Unconscious(Subconscious)According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.Freud"s level of mental life that consists of mental activities beyond people"s normal awareness.138
5332736028Cognitive Psychologistsare primarily interested in thinking. That want to know how reasoning, problem solving, memory, and other mental processes relate to computer game playing.Believe unconscious processes info of which you are unaware139
5332736029Dual Processingthe principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks.140
5332736030Unconsciousnessthe condition of not being alert or aware of your surroundings141
5332736031Consciousnessour awareness of ourselves and our environmentcan be altered by sleep, hypnosis, mediation, and drugs142
5332736032HypothalamusA neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.controls biological clock143
5332736033Circadian RhythmsInternally generated patterns of body functions, including hormonal signals, sleep, blood pressure, and temperature regulation, which have approximately a 24-hour cycle and occur even in the absence of normal cues about whether it is day or night144
5332736034Reticular FormationA nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal.145
5332736035ForebrainReticular FormationThalamusInvolved in changes in wakefulness, arousal, and attention146
5332736036Evolutionary PsychologistsSay that humans evolved unique waking-sleep cycle as result of natural selection that maximized chance of survival147
5332736037Sleep"s restorative functionProtein synthesis throughout bodymaintaining plasticity of neural connections148
5332736038Plasticity of neural connectionsability to be moldedessential for storing and retrieving memory149
5332736039Consolidationunification; process of becoming firmer or stronger; V. consolidate: merge; strengthenputting together new memories and thoughts with old150
5332736040Sleep Deprivationany significant loss of sleep, resulting in problems in concentration and irritabilityimpairs memory and immune system151
5332736041Sleepperiodic, natural loss of consciousness--as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernationcomplex combination of states of consciousnessAmount we sleep changes as we age152
5332736042Electroencephalogram (EEG)reveal the brain waves change systematically throughout sleep cycles153
5332736043Conscious (awake)Beta waves when alertAlpha waves when relaxed154
5332736044Beta WavesAlertness155
5332736045Alpha WavesRelaxed156
5332736046Hypnagogic Statea brief transitional stage of sleep in which one may experience hallucinations and/or the sensation of falling(Between conscious and sleep)157
5332736047Stage 1 Sleeptheta waves(higher in amplitude, Lower in frequency)
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5332736048Stage 2 SleepA sleep deeper than that of stage 1, characterized by a slower, more regular wave pattern, along with momentary interruptions of "sleep spindles." (high frequency bursts) and K complexes
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5332736049Stage 3 SleepSlow wave sleep; large-amplitude delta waves begin appearing; transition stage.Delta Waves, high amplitude, low frequency160
5332736050Stage 4 SleepThe deepest stage of sleep, during which we are least responsive to outside stimulation. Heart rate, respiration, temperature, and blood flow to brain reduced.Secrete growth hormone161
5332736051Non-Rem (NREM) SleepSleep Stages 1, 2, 3, and 4 that involve no rapid eye movement162
5332736052Order of Sleep Stages1,2,3,4,3,2,REM163
5332736053REM SleepRapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.164
5332736054Stage 250% of sleep is in this stage165
5332736055Deep SleepIn support of the restorative function of sleep, many of the body"s cells show increased production and reduced breakdown of proteins during .......166
5332736056NightmaresAnxiety-arousing dreams that lead to awakening, usually from REM sleep.167
5332736057DreamingA mental state that usually occurs during sleep that features visual imageryREM Sleep75% occurs in REM (longer/vivid), mental experience starts to shift to dreamlike state after stage 2168
5332736058Lucid DreamingBeing aware of your dreaming and being able to control the storyline.169
5332736059FruedDreams showcase unconscious desires and reveal secrets of the unconscious part of the mind unknown to the conscious part of the mind.170
5332736060Manifest Contentaccording to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream171
5332736061Latent Contentaccording to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream172
5332736062Robert Mccarley and J Alen HobsonActivation synthesis theory173
5332736063Activation synthesis TheroyTheory that proposes that perhaps dreams are nothing more than the brains interpretations of what is happening physiologically during REM sleep.174
5332736064PonsA brain structure that relays information from the cerebellum to the rest of the brainGenerate bursts of action potential to forebrain which is activation175
5332736065Cognitive view of SleepDuring sleep, info from external world is cut off. Only world that brain can model is the one from memories and experiences that can be activated by electrical impulses discharged from brain176
5332736066REM reboundthe tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)`177
5332736067InsomniaRecurring problems in falling or staying asleep.178
5332736068NarcolepsyA sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.

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5332736069Sleep Apneaa sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings180
5332736070Night Terrorsa sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered181
5332736071SleepwalkingsomnambulismA phenomenon primarily occurring in non-REM sleep in which people walk while asleep.Sleep stage 4182
5332736072HypnosisAltered state of consciousness characterized by deep relaxation and heightened suggestibilitysubjects can change aspects of reality and let the changes influence behavior183
5332736073DissociationA split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.Hypnotized people might experience two or more streams of conscious cutoff from each other184
5332736074Ernest hilgradpioneering hypnosis researcher and advocate of the divided consciousness theory of hypnosis185
5332736075Divided Consciousness Theory of Hypnosisa state of awareness characterized by divided attention to two or more tasks or activities performed at the same time186
5332736076Posthypnotic Suggestiona suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors187
5332736077MeditationAn intentional, self-produced state of consciousness induced by relaxing and systematically shifting attention away from day-to-day concerns.EEG"s of meditators show alpha wave characteristics of relaxed awareness188
5332736078Physiological Changes by Meditationlowered blood pressureindicate activation of parasympathetic nervous systemincreased feeling of wellbeing189
5332736079Psychoactive Drugschemicals that affect the central nervous system and alter activity in the braincan pass through the blood brain barrier to alter perceptioncan inhibit or stimulate different regions of brain by interacting with neurotransmitters190
5332736080Blood Brain BarrierThe brain is protected from harmful chemicals in the blood stream by thicker walls surrounding the brains blood vessels.191
5332736081ToleranceA progressive decrease in a person"s responsiveness to a drug.partly depends on environmental stimuli192
5332736082Withdrawal SymptomsThe Reaction experienced when a substance abuser stops using a drug with dependence propertiesintense craving for drug and effects opposite to those the drug usually induces193
5332736083Physiological Dependence or Addictiona condition in which the user has a chemical need for the drugdevelops when changes in brain chemistry from taking the drug necessitate taking the drug again to prevent withdrawal symptoms194
5332736084Drug categoriesDepressantsNarcoticsStimulantsHallucinogens195
5332736085DepressantsDrugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions and induce relaxation196
5332736086Barbiturates (depressant)drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgmentSecobarbital (Seconal) and phenobarbital(Luminal)sedatives taken to induce sleep and prevent seizures197
5332736087Tranquilizers (depressant)Benzodiazepines Valine, Xanax, and Rohypnol(roofies DATE RAPE DRUGS) and quaaludesrelieve anxietyinduce sleepprevent seizure198
5332736088Alcohol (depressant)most studies psychoactive drugacts at reticular formation, spinal cord cerebellum, and cerebral cortex and neurotransmitter systemsincreases transmission of GABAdecreases Acetylcholineincreases beta endorphinsdepresses activity of frontal lobeWithdrawal symptoms: tremors, seizures, sleep issues, nausea, hallucinations199
5332736089NarcoticsSpecific drugs that are obtainable only by prescription and are used to relieve painanalgesics (pain reducers)depress central nervous system and respiratory systemInclude: Opiates and synthetic opiates like codeine, heroin, morphine, opium percodan, Darvon, talwian, demerolinduces feelings of euphoria, relieve pain and induce sleepsimilar to endorphins200
5332736090Opiatesopium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxietyphysically and psychologically addictive201
5332736091StimulantsPsychoactive drugs that activate motivational centers and reduce activity in inhibitory centers for central nervous system by increase activity of serotonin dopamine and norepinephrineInclude: caffeine, cocaine , amphetamines, and nicotinetreat hyperactivity and narcolepsy202
5332736092Amphetamines (stimulants)methamphetaminebenzedrineritalinephedraecstacy (MDMA)stimulate the sympathetic nervous system and speed up metabolism reduce appetite203
5332736093Hallucinogenspsychedelicsalter moodsdistort perceptionsevoke sensory images in absence of sensory inputInclude LSD, PCP, THC, shrooms, and peyote204