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Hello Jery,DNA is a negatively fee polymer that is comprised of nucleotide structure blocks. Before we talk about where its negative charge comes from, let’s take a close-up see of the nucleotide monomers that comprise DNA.Four various nucleotides space covalently connected to build DNA molecules: adenin (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and also thymine (T). Each nucleotide is composed of a phosphate group, a deoxyribose sugar group, and a nitrogenous base. Nucleotides space covalently connected to one another via the development of phosphodiester bonds in between the sugar group of one nucleotide and the phosphate team of a second nucleotide.As you most likely know, most DNA is discovered in a double-stranded form with complementary base pairing in between the two DNA strands: A pairs through T, and C pairs with G. The development of phosphodiester bond between nearby nucleotides forms alternate sugar and also phosphate groups, dubbed the “sugar-phosphate backbone” the a DNA molecule. Furthermore, DNA forms a twin helix. In a nutshell, the framework of DNA have the right to be believed of together a twisted ladder v its complementary basic pairs consisting of the rungs the the ladder and also the sugar-phosphate backbone of each strand consisting of each side of the ladder.So, wherein does DNA’s an unfavorable charge come from? The phosphate groups that consist of the sugar-phosphate backbone room responsible. You might be interested to check out that molecular biologists capitalize ~ above this home of DNA to isolation DNA pieces of different sizes. Because DNA is negatively charged, molecule biologists frequently use agarose gel electrophoresis come separate different sized DNA pieces when DNA samples are subjected come an electric field — due to their negative charge, every one of the DNA fragments will move toward the positively charged electrode, but smaller DNA fragments will move at a quicker pace than bigger DNA fragments. This simple, yet powerful, technique allows researchers to isolation DNA pieces of various sizes.Supercoiling is a term supplied to describe what happens when the two strands that a double-stranded, dual helical DNA molecule space separated from every other, which occurs throughout DNA replication and transcription. One means to visualize supercoiling is come think around what happens when you twist a rubber band and then hold onto one finish of that while do the efforts to open up it in the center — the original coils will certainly twist on top of each various other to form a condensed, twisted ball. This is what supercoiling is like.Prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosomal DNA is arranged in different ways. Because of the circular juniorg8.com of many prokaryotic chromosomes, castle are often highly supercoiled under normal expansion conditions. In contrast, eukaryotic bio chromosomes room linear and packaged making use of histone proteins, which are not existing in most prokaryotic cells. As a result, eukaryotic bio chromosomes space not virtually as supercoiled as prokaryotes chromosomes. Intriguingly, genomes deserve to be negatively supercoiled, (i.e., the DNA is twisted in the contrary direction the the dual helix) or positively supercoiled (i.e., the DNA is twisted in the very same direction together the dual helix). We encourage girlfriend to follow the links we’ve listed below come learn an ext about this fascinating process.For much more information around DNA and its nucleotide building blocks, check out this links:http://www.juniorg8.com/scitable/topicpage/dna-is-a-structure-that-encodes-biological-6493050http://www.juniorg8.com/scitable/topicpage/discovery-of-the-function-of-dna-resulted-6494318http://www.juniorg8.com/scitable/topicpage/Discovery-of-DNA-Structure-and-Function-Watson-397http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/dna_double_helix/readmore.htmlTo learn much more about DNA supercoiling and also DNA packaging, follow this links:http://www.juniorg8.com/scitable/topicpage/genome-packaging-in-prokaryotes-the-circular-chromosome-9113http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=mboc4&part=A975&rendertype=figure&id=A1006http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=mcb&part=A802#A818http://www.juniorg8.com/scitable/topicpage/dna-packaging-nucleosomes-and-chromatin-310To learn an ext about agarose gel electrophoresis, examine out this links:http://www.juniorg8.com/scitable/content/gel-electrophoresis-can-be-used-to-separate-44970http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/labs/gel/