Fe3+ and also SCN- ions react through each other to form an orange-red colored product. This is a reactivity which reaches an equilibrium: although you could mix Fe3+ and also SCN- in the correct stoichiometric ratio for reactivity, the reactants are never before completely converted to the colored product. Rather, as the concentration of product builds up, product molecules transform back right into Fe3+ and SCN-, until a steady-state is got to (the concentrations of reactants and also commodities no longer adjust through time).
In this experiment you prepared a number of mixtures of different amounts of the reactants, and also measured via a spectrophotometer the amount of product that formed in each case. From your information, you are to recognize which of the complying with reaction stoichiometries is correct:
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The approach provided to recognize which stoichiomeattempt is correct requires utilizing the 3 potential equilibrium continuous expressions for the 3 possible reactions. Because just one of the stoichiometric ratios have the right to be correct, it adheres to that just among the feasible equilibrium continuous expressions can be correct. By filling in the data for your a number of experiments right into each of the feasible equilibrium consistent expressions, only one equilibrium consistent expression must lead to a worth which is successfully "constant" over all the experiments. The equilibrium consistent expressions equivalent to the 3 possible stoichiometries being thought about are offered on Page 139 of the lab manual.
Since of the complexity of the calculations in this experiment, we will not be able to administer you through a entirely finish sample lab report. We will certainly show, yet, all the necessary points.
The just data recorded in the lab for this experiment are the transmittances of your five Fe/SCN mixtures. Realize, but, that some information is implied in the Procedure component of the experiment. For instance, the concentrations of the stock remedies, as well as the volumes of the stock remedies provided for the assorted mixtures, are uncovered as part of the procedure. Also note that the data necessary to plot the compelled calibration curve for the colored product is offered in the Calculations section of the experiment.
Page 181, Part II
A sample calculation is to be done for Equipment #3 of the procedure.
Let"s assume that Equipment #3 had actually a %Transmittance of 45.1% T once measured with the spectrophotometer.A. Absorbance
A = 2 - log (%T) = 2 - log (45.1) = 2 - 1.654 = 0.346
B. Concentration of Product (from Beer"s Law Plot)
Documents for plotting a Beer"s Law calibration curve for the colored product of this reactivity is found on Page 142. You need to review Experiment 15 for just how to plot this graph and how to use it to identify concentration.
Using the graph I prepared from the data on Page 142, the absorbance I calculated in Part IIA above (0.346) synchronizes to a concentration of 6.961 X 10-5 M for the colored product in my Mixture #3.C.
The concentration we calculated in Part IIB over was for the colored product of the reaction. Now, in this component and the next, we need to calculate the initial concentrations of the reactants that were taken, which led to the production of this amount of product. The two stock solutions-Fe3+ and SCN---were both at a concentration of 0.00200 M (2.00 X 10-3 M) , yet we used different quantities of these 2 stock options (plus some water) in each of the mixtures. It is important to usage the correct composition once calculating each of your remedies.
Systems #3 had actually the following composition:5.00 mL of 0.00200 M Fe3+ solution 1.50 mL of water 3.50 mL of 0.00200 M SCN- solution
This is a total volume of 10.00 mL for Equipment #3. So the initial concentration of Fe3+ in Systems #3 is
The complace of Solution #3 is suggested in Part C over. The concentration of SCN- in Equipment #3 is
In Part IIC over, we calculated that the initial concentration of Fe3+ was 0.00100 M (1.00 X 10-3 M )as soon as we first mixed the Fe3+, SCN-, and water together. Then the reaction emerged. In Part IIB, we determined from our graph that the concentration of product created by the reaction was 6.961 X 10-5 M. Keep in mind that manufacturing of the product provides up some of the Fe3+ taken initially.
Due to the fact that we are assuming that all the possible reactions stoichiometrically just involve one Fe3+ reacting to create each product molecule, the concentration of Fe3+ remaining unreacted at equilibrium should be
F. Calculations Based On Trial Reactivity 1
In the following three portions of the calculations (Parts IIF, G, and G), we are going to calculate worths for the equilibrium continuous based on Solution #3, utilizing each of the possible stoichiometries and each of the possible trial equilibrium consistent expressions. Each of the trial reactions involves a different stoichiometric coeffective for SCN- in the reaction.1.
In this section, we are going to calculate
The initial mixture taken to consist of Systems #3 had SCN- ion at a concentration of 0.000700 M (7.00 X 10-4 M). We found from our graph, that the concentration of colored product was 6.961 X 10-5 M.
Because in Reactivity 1 we are assuming that each product molecule results from the reactivity of just one SCN- molecule, the concentration of SCN- staying unreacted at equilibrium is simply
2. Keq for Solution #3 utilizing Reaction 1
For Reactivity 1,
the equilibrium consistent expression would have actually the create
In this trial reaction, a stoichiometric aspect of two has been presented for SCN- (one Fe3+ reacts with two SCN-). This variable of 2 will enter right into our calculations of the amount of SCN- remaining at equilibrium. This variable of two (as an exponent) will certainly additionally affect the trial equilibrium consistent for this reaction (which we"ll be calculating below).1.
The initial mixture taken to consist of Equipment #3 had SCN- ion at a concentration of 0.000700 M (7.00 X 10-4 M). We uncovered from our graph, that the concentration of colored product was 6.961 X 10-5 M. Each molecule of product, in this trial reactivity, requires two SCN- to react. So if we have measured that 6.961 X 10-5 M has actually developed, then twice this variety of SCN- need to have actually reacted. So the amount of unreacted SCN- existing at equilibrium is
2. Keq for Solution #3 Using Reaction 2
For Reaction 2, we consider that one Fe3+ reacts through two SCN-
This element of 2 not only enters the stoichiometric calculations (See IIG1 above), but likewise enters (as an exponent) into the expression for the equilibrium constant for the reaction. For the reaction over, the equilibrium constant expression would certainly be
The concentration of SCN- is squared in this equilibrium constant expression, showing the stoichiometric factor of two.
In Part IIE, we calculated that the equilibrium concentration of Fe3+ was 9.30 X 10-4 M. In Part IIG1 above, we calculated that the equilibrium concentration of SCN- was 5.61 X 10-4 M. And in Part IIB, from our graph, we figured out that the concentration of product at equilibrium was 6.961 X 10-5 M. Filling all this right into the expression for the equilibrium constant for Reactivity 2 gives
Keep in mind that we got a fully different (a lot bigger value) for Keq using the various stoichiometry and also various expression for Keq.H. Calculations Based On Trial Reaction 3
In this part of the calculations, we are going to test the 3rd feasible trial reactivity stoichiomeattempt
In this trial reactivity, a stoichiometric element of four has been introduced for SCN- (one Fe3+ reacts with four SCN-). This element of four will certainly enter into our calculations of the amount of SCN- remaining at equilibrium. This variable of 4 (as an exponent) will also influence the trial equilibrium continuous for this reaction (which we"ll be calculating below).1.
The initial mixture taken to consist of Systems #3 contained SCN- ion at a concentration of 0.000700 M (7.00 X 10-4 M). We uncovered from our graph, that the concentration of colored product was 6.961 X 10-5 M. Each molecule of product, in this trial reaction, calls for 4 SCN- to react. So if we have actually measured that 6.961 X 10-5 M has formed, then 4 times this number of SCN- must have actually reacted. So the amount of unreacted SCN- current at equilibrium is
2. Keq for Systems #3 Using Reaction 3
For Reactivity 3, we consider that one Fe3+ reacts via four SCN-
Fe3+ + 4SCN- =
This element of four not only enters the stoichiometric calculations (See above), yet also enters (as an exponent) into the expression for the equilibrium continuous for the reactivity. For the reaction over, the equilibrium continuous expression would be
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The concentration of SCN- is raised to the fourth power in this equilibrium continuous expression, mirroring the stoichiometric factor of four.
In Part IIE, we calculated that the equilibrium concentration of Fe3+ was 9.30 X 10-4 M. In Part IIH1 above, we calculated that the equilibrium concentration of SCN- was 4.22 X 10-4 M. And in Part IIB, from our graph, we identified that the concentration of product at equilibrium was 6.961 X 10-5 M. Filling all this into the expression for the equilibrium consistent for Reaction 2 gives
Page 184, Parts III A, B, and also C
The tables on Page 147 might seem overwhelming at first glance, yet when you analyze them, it transforms out that they"re not too bad!
First of all, after completing Part II (watch above), you have actually currently done all the calculations for Equipment 3. So fill this indevelopment into the table.
Then realize that some of the information repeats in Parts A, B, and C. The initially six columns in each Part (A,B, C) are the very same for the 3 trial reactions. It is only the
Page 184, Parts III D and ED. Which Reactivity Occurs?
Looking at your tables on Page 147, you should notification that the five values for Keq calculated must be successfully the same (within speculative error) for one of the sections of data (A, B, or C). Tbelow might be a slight variation in worths (in the 3rd substantial figure) for the correct alternative, however you will notification a major variation (by components of 10, 100, or even 1000) in the other selections.E. Mean Value
Come on, you recognize how to carry out this!! Add up the 5 worths for Keq and also divide by 5!
Page 185, Part IV
What perform you think? We"ll accept any type of answer that is well thought out and also well presented!