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Listen now as Juno principal Investigator and juniorg8.com room Science and also Engineering combine Vice chairman Dr. Scott Bolton discusses the mission’s optimal discoveries, deep room surprises, just how the spacecraft was pulled right into Jupiter’s orbit, and the art and music influenced by Juno’s findings.
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Lisa Peña (LP): It"s a search for our beginnings. The massive planet Jupiter hold the an essential to expertise the formation of ours solar system, ours planet, and life itself. NASA"s Juno mission is unlocking the mysteries the the gas giant. Primary investigator, Scott Bolton, joins us with the revelations native Juno"s journey to the fifth planet from the sun. That"s next on this episode of modern technology Today.
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Hello, and also welcome to technology Today. I"m Lisa Peña. NASA"s Juno mission launched in 2011 and entered Jupiter"s orbit in 2016 to discover the planet. The spacecraft continues orbiting the gas giant, recently beginning its extended mission. Jupiter to represent the very earliest component of the solar system and also is crucial to knowledge the formation of all planets and life on Earth. Juno is unlocking the mysteries the Jupiter and also rewriting the textbooks on the fifth planet native the sun. Our guest now is a theoretical and also experimental an are physicist. The is combine vice chairman of the juniorg8.com room Science and also Engineering Division, and also Juno major Investigator, Dr. Scott Bolton. Give thanks to you because that being here, Scott.
A citizens scientist created this highly intensified “Orange Marble” photo of Jupiter using JunoCam data. Juno is equipped with the general public outreach instrument, enabling amateur astronomers to add data and also participate in the mission. Juno launched in 2011 and, ~ 10 years, has just started its extended mission examining the biggest planet in the solar system, and also three the its moons.
Dr. Scott Bolton (SB): thanks for having actually me. It"s great to be v you and also your audience.LP: So, the Juno mission is fascinating. The spacecraft launched 10 years ago. The data, the pictures are just incredible. You are heading increase this mission. The major mission has actually just ended, and also you freshly started the extended mission, which will go come 2025, we have actually so much to talk about Today so let"s obtain started with the gas giant, Jupiter. Why the emphasis on Jupiter? just how did this planet end up being the centerpiece that the Juno mission?SB: So, the factor Jupiter is so vital is because it"s the biggest of all the planets. It"s an ext massive than all the planets placed together. In fact, they would all fit within Jupiter basically. And also so when you"re trying to recognize the recipe of exactly how you make a solar system, and how did we gain here ~ above the Earth, and what occurred in the early on solar system, Jupiter is yes, really the very first stop. And also it"s due to the fact that it must have formed first. If that had developed after the solar system was currently created, and the other planets, it nearly certainly would have actually disrupted everything. So, many scientists think it should have developed first.So that"s the an initial step in planetary formation. ~ the sunlight formed, then the an initial planet must have actually been Jupiter. And also so, when you want to sort of investigate and also understand wherein we came from, exactly how planets space made, just how other solar systems are made once we look the end at exoplanetary systems, we look, and also we usually compare it to Jupiter. And so, Jupiter is the really providing us the clues.LP: Juno launched in 2011 and also jumped right into Jupiter"s orbit in 2016. You"ve been collecting data and also images for five years now. What carry out you consider the most far-reaching discoveries the Juno"s primary mission?SB: therefore that"s a long list, and I"ll shot to take it them in the bespeak that we realized them when they to be happening. So, the an initial thing was is Juno is really the very first spacecraft to go over the poles that Jupiter. So, it provided us the very very first view of what Jupiter"s north and also south pole looked like, and it didn"t watch like any kind of like anything that anybody had actually expected. We had actually seen Saturn"s pole, which had sort that a hexagonal shape of a heat of atmospheric features, but it pretty much was pretty bland.When we gained over the pole the Jupiter, they were giant polar cyclones. In fact, on both poles. And also they were every shaped basically favor a hurricane ~ above the Earth, they were really circular and also shaped choose a vortex. However there were various numbers. There were five of them end one pole bordering a facility one, sort of in the shape of a pentagon, evenly distributed, 5 of them.
This image of the dark next of Ganymede, recognized as a Galilean Satellite, was acquired by Juno’s Stellar reference Unit navigation camera throughout its June 7, 2021, flyby the the moon.
And top top the other pole to be eight surrounding a central. And they were all evenly distributed, kind of spaced out choose they were sharing a space. And so that was a actual surprise that. And also in fact, scientists are still functioning on theoretical concepts of how to explain how those polar cyclones space created, even if it is they"re changing, how long do they live for. And also they"re gigantic. They"re thousands of kilometers across. Ns mean, they are not fairly as large as the great Red Spot, but they are very significant storms.Then together we began to explore Jupiter an ext and more, we began looking in ~ the deep atmosphere. So, we have special instrumentation referred to as the microwave radiometer, and they actually deserve to see through the cloud tops. So, as soon as we look at Jupiter the means we"re supplied to looking at it, we look in ~ it native an equatorial perspective, but friend look at it through Hubble telescope or few of the previous spacecraft, and you see Jupiter is a collection of stripes.We call them zones and belts, and those are actually jet streams going back and forth. They"re a tiny bit various color, some space a small browner or redder than other ones that are whiter or much more yellow. And that"s more than likely driven through the chemistry. However they"re actually winds that are moving back and forth in different directions, and at different speeds.And climate you have actually this giant an excellent red spot simply in the southern of one area. And also of course, the is the longest life storm that we understand of. Well, when we began to look at Jupiter deep down with our microwave radiometer, us realized the those zones and belts room not simply shallow features. They walk pretty deep, 3,000 or 4,000 kilometers down right into Jupiter. So, this things are penetrating down. And also then underneath that, Jupiter seems to be rotating about as a hard body. So the was a pretty major discovery.Also, as we"re looking in ~ this deep atmosphere, us realized it wasn"t well-mixed, and that went versus every theory that existed at the time. We had constantly thought, scientists constantly thought that when you drop listed below basically wherein the sunshine shined, so if you had actually clouds that blocked it, the weather was driven by sunlight prefer it is top top the Earth. And that when you obtained beneath that, or absolutely beneath where water condenses, and also the water clouds to be formed, that every little thing would be well-mixed and stirred up inside.
Juno major Investigator Dr. Scott Bolton that Southwest study Institute claims the Juno mission calls for a multidisciplinary approach, pass together plenty of scientific fields to discover Jupiter. During the primary mission, the Juno team mapped Jupiter by orbiting the planet an ext than 30 times. The mission proceeds through September 2025.
But in fact, it isn"t. We look down as deep as we can see, and we watch that ammonia and also water and other pockets are all very variable not only as a role of latitude, i beg your pardon is really puzzling, yet it likewise has time variability in it. It"s changing. Therefore things room happening. The weather layer on Jupiter goes much deeper than whereby the sun can reach or where water condenses, i beg your pardon is largely thought to it is in the driver the weather. So, we"re tho trying to number out specifically how the works.One concept that we"ve seen proof of is that there may be kind of mush balls, which is type of a mushy favor hail that"s being created in Jupiter"s storms, and dragging down ammonia and also water under very, an extremely deep choose hail does on the Earth. Here in Texas, we acquire hail, and also you regularly see the hail landing on the ground, on your driveway, or on her street, or if you"re unfortunate, on her car. And of course, the hail is ice, and also yet it"s warmer than when ice melts. And yet the hail is still there.So, like an planet or like our hailstorms, Jupiter has actually some kind, but they are giant hail, and they"re mushy, mixed through ammonia and also water probably. And also so, this to be a pretty major discovery. And just the entirety idea the Jupiter"s deep environment is highly variable.Another large discovery was us were trying to find its core, and we wanted to recognize whether Jupiter had a tiny compact core or none in ~ all. And also that was going to help us constrain how Jupiter formed. Walk rock type of collect an initial in the early solar system, and then when enough gravity was formed from the rocks, it suck the remainder of the gaseous atmosphere, i m sorry is mostly what Jupiter is made the end of? Or did the for an ext like us think a star forms, where an instability it s okay created, and the cloud forms a star v no central core.And we were surprised again, because neither answer that we had set out to try to discover, which was a little compact core or no compact core, turned the end to be true. Instead, Jupiter has actually a very big core without hard boundaries. It"s not compact, and it"s kind of a fuzzy core. We speak to it a dilute core, and it doesn"t fit any kind of of the theory of exactly how Jupiter created or evolved. And so those theory are type of going earlier to square one, and also saying, exactly how do you make large planets? What taken place in the at an early stage solar device that formed Jupiter? One idea is perhaps it endured from a really giant impact early on in that life. Yet we"re tho looking for proof of whether that could be true. Models don"t quite make the work.Another exploration had to do with the magnetic field. Us saw features in the magnetic ar that to be being distorted by the jet streams, the winds, deep in Jupiter, which intended this was another piece of proof that the jet streams and the winds and Jupiter were in reality going rather deep. They to be going deep sufficient where the setting was ionized or charged from pressure and also temperature, and the magnetic field was charging this atmosphere. And so, the winds were actually twisting the magnetic field about a little bit.And so that was a big surprise, and also it yes, really taught us that the atmosphere and the interior are very much in interaction with each other and also are affecting. Every other and also that sort of opens up up a whole new field. Before Juno, researchers from these various fields regularly worked alone and also in isolation, not reasoning that one thing was in reality affecting the other. But on the Juno team, we"ve began to end up being much more interdisciplinary, where we establish the atmosphere, the interior, and also the magnetic field, and also even the magnetosphere room all a coupling to each other and also affecting each other"s scientific outcomes.LP: So, it"s simply a vast list of explorations over five years, it"s expected. There"s just so much data, so countless images putting in. What does that feel choose to it is in on the team the town hall this in genuine time, come in, and just realizing, you mentioned being surprised rather a few times there. So, what does that feel choose to be on a team make these large discoveries, and as we discussed earlier, rewriting the textbooks on Jupiter?SB: Well, i think us all feel really fortunate and honored come be part of other that"s kind of revolutionizing our expertise of the solar system and also the cosmos. Ns think it"s likewise a very humbling experience. You set out to achieve certain science objectives, and also you lay out what friend expect, and particular questions you"re hope to answer. And also usually, you"re lucky or girlfriend stumble into maybe one or two points where your concepts are presented to it is in wrong, and also the science community has to type of go ago to square one. Ns think that it"s the very first time for many of united state where we"re having actually that happen so often, and it"s across the plank of all of our clinical disciplines.I mean, I only touched on a few, but people that examine the magnetosphere, people that study the magnetic field, the interior, the atmosphere, earth formation, atmospheric dynamics, it"s a really humbling suffer to realize whatever you"ve to be spending her time and reading about in books needs to be rewritten. And also so it"s a lesson, but it"s also incredibly exciting, and also a privilege come be part of miscellaneous that"s so revolutionary.LP: just how did friend propel the spacecraft into orbit about this massive planet? exactly how do you attain that?SB: so initially, you start off through a rocket launches you from the Earth, and also that rocket has actually a number of stages to it. And also your spacecraft is tucked away inside at the top. And also as the stages happen, first, you get into planet orbit, and then that one more rocket fires you right into the direction that trajectory engineers, which are orbital dynamics, and they"re one amazing field by itself, have actually actually calculated and also realized how you literally journey to Jupiter. It"s really remarkable to me that we understand exactly how to navigate the planets in our solar system. I"m in awe that the engineers that calculation that. They"re utilizing Kepler"s laws, and straightforward physics, yet it"s exceptional that it every works, and also they have the right to do this fine tunings.So, you acquire launched into a direction the is all calculated front of time, and also we didn"t have enough power to acquire there. We"re no the very first that have used this trick. We use a gravity assist, so us go around the sun. And while we go about the sun, us reach the end to maybe near the orbit the Mars or the asteroid belt, and also then come ago to the Earth, and also the earth kind of provides us an extra boost like a slingshot. And then you gain going also faster family member to the sun.And therefore then her orbit moves out even further than Mars or Jupiter, due to the fact that you"ve got almost like another rocket rise from the Earth. You"re literally getting close to the Earth, and Earth slows under slightly, and transfers part angular momentum to the spacecraft. And that allows you reach out to Jupiter"s orbit.Now the next trick is when you"re at an orbit that"s walk to reach to the street that Jupiter is from the sun, every little thing has come be timed so once you reach that distance, you"re actually alongside Jupiter. So that"s every calculated ahead of time. And then when you gain to that ar where you"re going to it is in close to Jupiter, girlfriend fire another rocket that you"re moving on board, a key engine, and also that basically slows you down. Due to the fact that if friend don"t fire that rocket, you"re just going to fly right previous Jupiter. And also so you slow-moving down, and also then Jupiter"s gravity ar grabs you, and then you"re in orbit about Jupiter. And so that"s the entirety trick.And it"s a really nail-biting experience, since if the rocket motor, once you"re simply at Jupiter, doesn"t fire just the ideal time for the appropriate duration, and in the precise right direction, then you lose the entire mission. One of two people you don"t go into orbit in ~ Jupiter, or something might happen wherein you just explode, and also that"s the end of the mission. So, it"s a an extremely tense moment, similar to the launch is. If the rocket go wrong in ~ the beginning pad, you lose everything. However at Jupiter, you"ve already spent so numerous years wait to obtain there. The anticipation is there combined with the tension. But it"s also really exciting living on the edge.LP: Yeah, so carefully orchestrated. Once you to be saying they know the route approximately our planets, and also to get you there, every I might think that was, this is so means beyond punching in your location in Google Maps. This is following level, just having actually a complete knowledge of whatever they"re going come encounter follow me the way. So simply fascinating. So, Juno orbited Jupiter 34 times. Why this specific number, and also what did each orbit accomplish?SB: So, we were basically designed to lay out the planet. Because that our science objectives, we wanted to have the ability to understand the gravity field of Jupiter, the magnetic ar of Jupiter, and the atmosphere, and look in ~ the magnetosphere. And also to perform that, you"d favor to lay out the planet, map out the environment around it. It"s kind of favor if you wanted to lay out the Earth, if girlfriend only discussed Texas, or talked about Texas and then Hawaii, girlfriend wouldn"t gain a very great feel because that how whatever varied. You need to go over every place, sort of every so plenty of degrees longitude.And so that"s what the mapping was. Every orbit was designed to walk over a particular longitude the Jupiter, near in. Our orbit is elliptical and also so one component of it, we go very, an extremely close to Jupiter, just 5,000 kilometers over the cloud tops. And also so that"s design so the it goes over a specific longitude. And then the following one goes end the longitude probably 180 levels away indigenous that.And then each one is spaced out. And so, what us did was we made a map that was 16 orbits approximately Jupiter. And also of course, it"s 360 levels around, therefore you have the right to do the math and also see the we"ve spaced the out. And also then the next collection of orbits went in in between those longitudes. And also so, by the time you had 32 orbits, you had actually basically gained a finish map of Jupiter the was same spaced in longitude.And climate we had actually two spare orbits. Simply in instance something go wrong, us could consist of one the those longitude or pieces of the map, we didn"t want any gaps in the map. And during the time, us did have one orbit wherein the spacecraft got in a safe mode, and also so us didn"t gain data. And so, we required basically 33 to complete our map that 32 orbits. And also then we still had actually the one spare.And you talked around how everything has to be so carefully planned out for the navigation. And also it does, it"s really amazing. But the navigation is done in some means the same means we"ve done for centuries. So, ships, once they were learning America and also things choose that, would certainly look at the stars to navigate with. And also that"s precisely how spacecraft work. They have actually cameras one-of-a-kind cameras that are low-light cameras, the look up, and also look in ~ the stars. And also they do a map the the stars, and also then compare it come a map that"s in their computer system inside the spacecraft, and of course, we have actually them top top the Earth as well for the operation engineers, and also we compare. And that"s how the spacecraft knows whereby it is. It takes images of the stars. So, we"re accurate navigating by starlight.LP: i love thinking about that. Together you said, once the explorers to be discovering brand-new lands using the same method, stars. Amazing. So, us hear a lot about Jupiter"s moons. Jupiter has actually 79 recognized moons, 53 named, 26 awaiting main names. Io, Ganymede, Europa, and also Callisto space the planet"s 4th largest moons, known as the Galilean satellites. What has actually Juno revealed about Jupiter"s moons?SB: So, that wasn"t in our original plan, however we to be of course, orbiting Jupiter, and because we had actually a polar orbit, us were going over and listed below the moons. And also nobody had seen that before, since previous NASA"s spacecraft had always stayed near the equator and could only look just like a Jupiter. You would certainly look at a next shot, usually the same view you"d obtain from the Earth. So, as soon as we reviewed the poles, we took the cameras, and pointed them at this satellites. We regulated to gain pictures the Ganymede, and Io native above. And on Io, which is the most volcanic body in the entire solar system, we observed what the volcanoes look prefer at the poles that Io for the an initial time.We also made maps the Ganymede. We have actually a couple of goals that room actually complying with Juno that room going to be released soon, and they"re walk to check out those two bodies. One through the European an are Agency called Juice is walk to discover Ganymede, and NASA"s own Europa Clipper mission is walking to likewise be released in a couple of years and also be trying out Europa. So, we gained the an initial view of what those moons look prefer from the poles. And also in our extended mission, we"re actually going to obtain really close come those moons.So, we currently over this last summer flew by Ganymede really close, just about 1,000 kilometers or so over Ganymede"s surface. And also we gained incredible images. And also we to compare that additionally to more distant shots, where we"re seeing the poles, and also we learn around the composition, the ice shell. Ganymede has its own magnetic field, so we discover that a little bit. We do a radio occultation to know its atmosphere.And us look in ~ the whole interaction of Ganymede, the moon, v the magnetosphere. Each of these moons of Jupiter affect Jupiter"s magnetosphere, and actually display up as soon as you look at Jupiter"s aurora. Since there"s prefer an umbilical cord moving along the magnetic field that comes out of Jupiter the threads v these Galilean satellites. And also so, you can see a little footprint lit up. And also you deserve to see Ganymede"s footprint, Europa, and Io. And in fact, Io, since of that volcanoes, creates a footprint the goes a portion of the way around Jupiter since of every the volcano debris that type of trails behind Io. Also creates aurora because that us.So, in our expanded mission that"s still comes up sometime following year, we"ll walk by yes, really close to Europa, only about 350 kilometers far from that is surface. So, we"ll see brand-new things through Europa that we"re an extremely excited about. And also then we have actually two flybys that Io that are 1,500 kilometers, and that"ll phone call us around its interior, even if it is the magma s is an international or simply in little pockets.These moons have actually oceans. The Ganymede has actually an s underneath the ice, and Europa absolutely has an ocean underneath its ice. And so, we"re going to be experimenting how those seas work. Maybe are there pieces of castle that space closer to the surface. And also what is the ice shell around these. We have actually some special tools that the future missions don"t have.In particular, among them is this microwave radiometer, and also it to be designed to actually look deep right into Jupiter"s atmosphere. Once we point that it in ~ Ganymede or Europa"s ice shell, or even Io"s, we"ll make a map of that ice that tells us something around how that composition and structural nature change across the moon"s globe. And may tell us where components of the ice space shallow or in communication with the ocean underneath.It"s going come tell united state a lot. And we don"t have actually that data. Even on this future missions, us don"t have anything precisely like that, for this reason we"re working through those teams to help complement them and get them an ext prepared for their own investigation. And of course, once they gain their data, we"ll walk back, and also we"ll use Juno data at these moons to shot to make a bigger snapshot tell us much more about the moons themselves.LP: So, one other popular feature that the earth is the giant red spot. What have actually you learned about this large storm?SB: So, the huge red point out is a good example of other that"s really well known, however reasonably poorly understood. And we know that it"s it s long a long time. And also we"re lucky to have Juno over there right currently studying it, since it"s going through a duration of change. It shows up to be shrinking. There"s some controversy whether the storm itself is obtaining smaller or if the height layer is obtaining covered by various other clouds, and it just appears to be smaller. And so we"re studying that, city hall those changes, and certainly learning about the dynamics of the great Red Spot.But there"s 2 pieces of points that are of certain interest come us. And that is one v the microwave radiometer, we can actually look under the layers of the an excellent Red Spot and also see exactly how deep that goes. And it looks like it goes pretty deep, but we"re tho looking in ~ the details the that and also modeling it. But it"s walking to sort of provide us new information and brand-new models of how the an excellent Red point out works. That"s one point that Juno is functioning on and also doing.Another is we have actually other techniques that we deserve to look at how the good Red point out affects Jupiter"s gravity field or magnetic field. And so the tells us also something about it, the depth, and also how it"s structured, and how much mass is bound to the storm, are there other storms favor that. And also so we"re kind of learning about the great Red Spot, which is sort of the chief storm over there at Jupiter, but additionally comparing it come the other types of storms and vortices that we watch all across.I mean, one of the amazing explorations of Juno is how very beautiful Jupiter is. That when you really acquire up close, and you gain these camera shots, you see it"s choose a palette, favor a valve Gogh painting. And also these storms room swirling around in different colors. And also it"s really unique in the solar system, and also that it"s together a herbal beauty. We have actually a website where we placed this data up because that anybody come process. And the citizen researchers go on and make the pictures, but I would say there"s virtually an equal number of artists simply inspired, and also they"re do art pictures out that Juno"s images of Jupiter. And also the good Red spot is ideal in the center of that, because it"s an exceptionally beautiful storm.We also see tiny clouds in ~ the very tops of it that us think are should be wherein the precipitation or ammonia ice need to be forming. And also that"s something the Juno found all over Jupiter, that there"s this high-level clouds. We can practically see clouds at different levels, and some of them should be made of ice, and also other ones are made of fluid or gas, or a mixture.LP: Yeah, so because you mentioned it, let"s talk about the pioneering citizen science campaign that her team created. So, Juno is the an initial NASA mission to have a dedicated camera for the public. And also as you said, citizen scientists take the JunoCam images, and also upgrade them, adding color, and highlighting the planet"s beauty, as you said, the unique features. So, the campaign also invites input indigenous amateur astronomers. Exactly how does this open up platform enhance the Juno mission?SB: so first, the citizen researchers that occupational with the pictures that us take, they"re no just changing the color, they"re actually developing the image itself, as with scientists would. We fill up the life data, which doesn"t look anything favor an image. It"s digital, and we"re spinning, and so the image data itself needs to be played through on the computer and organized. And then you make an image, and also then girlfriend colorize it. And also we have various four different filters, and so they obtain to select that. And that helps scientifically as well as artistically.And then we have this big program for amateur astronomers to look at Jupiter in ~ the same time that we"re flying by. We publish when we"re walk to paris by, and at i beg your pardon longitudes we"re going come see. And also even experienced astronomers utilizing Hubble telescope and special infrastructure all across the planet with infrared and different wavelengths will certainly look. But then the amateurs also help us, because they get an ext coverage than the professional ones. There"s only a couple of big telescopes the that can be trained top top Jupiter at any given time. And also so, the amateurs fill in the blank, and also give us more constant coverage.And so, one of the straight links is when we watch something strange or new in the radio or in a microwave or even in our image, we get the paper definition from the amateur community, since they gain the picture, and they watch exactly how Jupiter"s atmosphere is evolving. Sometimes, lock warn united state about, stuff and they say, hey a big change has emerged here. We had actually something that taken place not also long back that was referred to as Clyde"s spot, whereby an amateur named Clyde in south Africa was taking photo of Jupiter, and also saw a big white storm creating just south, and also a small bit to the best or eastern of the great Red Spot.And so, he placed out an alert. And also it turned out the next day, us were flying best over that. And also so, we obtained a close-up picture of Clyde"s spot, and also then and also we watched this evolve. This was a giant storm that formed an extremely quickly, and then we"ve watched that evolve. And also so, the amateur community, and also the expert community, are playing a big role in connecting come us, and also expanding our science that we can do. Sometimes, the citizens scientists, they"re doing such vital stuff, we invite them into our own publications, and also they become component of the team literally.LP: i mean, how amazing for them, and also how interesting for Clyde. So, all the amateur astronomers out there can shoot because that the stars, so come speak, and also can target to end up being Clydes, and also put their information out there. And I simply want to put the website the end also. You have the right to see the citizen scientists" work at missionjuno.juniorg8.com.edu/junocam. Of course, we"ll have this web deal with on our illustration 35 page. Really cool work.So best now, I want to pat a unique chorus the sounds for our listeners, sounds developed with Juno data. So, let"s listen it.
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Ian McKinney and also Bryan Ortiz are the podcast audio engineers and editors. I am producer and also host, Lisa Peña.