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1 i m sorry of these is the belief that God has figured out in advance who will be conserved (the "elect") and also who will certainly be damned (the "reprobate")?
Answer: predestination Eternal reward and punishment is the result of predestination. The reversal taught that the an excellent works that Catholicism to be idolatrous, for they encouraged people to believe that lock merited salvation.
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One that the an essential tenets of roman Catholicism the Luther rejected was the doctrine of Transubstantiation. What go this theory mean?

the the bread and wine that the Eucharist became the body and also blood of Christ that the holy Trinity could be current as one spiritual entity the the guilty of man could be redeemed by the acknowledgment and possession of Papal Indulgences the the Pope to be the direct vassal of God, having descended from St. Peter
Answer: Eisleben in 1483 Luther was born on November 10, 1483 come thrifty, hardworking parental who carried him up through strict discipline. He was taught to are afraid God and also to believe that heaven and also hell are real places. ~ above the outside, Luther was everything a great Roman Catholic was an alleged to be. ~ above the inside, however, he never experienced a sense that his sins to be truly forgiven, and always felt only guilt and condemnation.
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Answer: 1517 The Reformation began on October 31, 1517 when Martin Luther nailed the Ninety-Five Theses on the door that the lock Church Wittenberg in Germany. Since around 1500, people"s means of thinking started to change, do men mindful of the values of individual liberty and also responsibility prior to God.
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4 The roman inn Catholic Church held nine "Church Councils" between 1215 and 1545 to address what issue?

Answer: just how to address Church corruption The Reformation emerged in large part due to the fact that of prevalent dissatisfaction with the corrupt methods that the roman Catholic Church had enabled to exist. Over the centuries, the church, specifically in the office of the papacy, had come to be deeply involved in the political life of west Europe. The resulting intrigues and political manipulations, linked with the church"s raising power and also wealth, added to the bankrupting of the church as a spirituality force. Abuses such as the revenue of indulgences (or spirituality privileges) and also relics and the corruption that the clergy exploited the pious and also further undermined the church"s spirituality authority. The Church itself known this and held the nine Councils in an attempt to fix the concern of corruption and abuse that power. All of teh Councils failed to reach any resolution. Over there were other reforms though that attempted come stem the corruption, such together the reformations achieved by St. Francis, Peter Waldo, january Hus, and also John Wycliffe, which addressed abuses in the life that the church in the centuries prior to 1517. In the 16th century, Erasmus of Rotterdam, a an excellent Humanist scholar, was the cook proponent of liberal Catholic reform that assaulted moral abuses and popular superstitions in the church and urged the imitation the Christ, the can be fried teacher.
5 What offered a release from all or component of punishment for sin through the Catholic Church, to reduce time in purgatory ~ death?

Answer: indulgence A exercise that many Renaissance Humanists found objectionable to be the use of indulgences as a source for church income.
Answer: college of Erfurt The university of Erfurt to be the very first German college to incorporate the brand-new learning that the Renaissance and also reject scholasticism, thereby maintaining philosophy and also theology separate. In this way, Luther had actually the opportunity to read and also accept the holy bible for just what it says.
Answer: Movable type printing push The movable kind printing press was invented approximately 1440 by johannes Gutenberg. Prior to the innovation of the movable kind printing press, printing was a tedious job, and as a result, literature was not very accessible come the public. Blocks were sculpted out the wood, and then discarded. Producing a method that allowed setting individul letters together to print a page made print books and also pamphlets easier and less expensive. Therefore invention, people could an ext readily afford come buy much more books. The first book to be published from the movable form was, appropriately, the Bible.
8 martin Luther is attributed as being the human who began the improvement in the 16th Century by doing what action?

Answer: Nailing a perform of grievances come a door The reformation movement started essentially top top Oct. 31, 1517 (the night of every Saints day) once a young name Luther posted a perform of grievances, dubbed the Ninety-Five Theses, versus the door of the lock Church in Wittenberg, Germany. Although the had end up being uncomfortable with numerous Church teachings, what basically spurred that to activity was an event that occurred when a friar called Tetzel (who was marketing indulgences approve by the pope, to gain the finances needed in the building of St. Peter"s) make his method to Germany. Luther take it the offense against the Church"s doctrine. In his Theses, he reviewed ninety-five point out in i m sorry the Church had actually erred in its interpretation of the new Testament. He touch on significant teachings the the Church, including the sacrament the Penance, transubstantiation, and papal authority. Luther declared that what differentiated him native previous reversal was that while they struck corruption in the life the the church, he saw the theological source of the problem--the perversion that the church"s doctrine of redemption and also grace. Luther, a pastor and also professor at the college of Wittenberg, deplored the entanglement the God"s cost-free gift of grace in a complicated system the indulgences and good works. The proposed one ethical and also theological revolutionary of the church: scripture alone is classic (sola sciptura) and justification is by belief (sola fide), no by works. While the did not intend come break with the Catholic Church, a confrontation through the papacy to be not lengthy in coming.
Answer: Pope Leo X top top the death of Pope Julius II, Giovanni de" Medici, from that wealthy and most prestigious family members of Florence, followed him together Pope Leo X.
Answer: He was struck by lightning ~ above a hot, summer job in 1505, a thunderstorm hit as he to be on his means home on one open nation road. Struck down in the rain, Luther"s understand of eternity came to be terribly vivid. Fearing for his life, Luther cry out, "St. Anne, help me and also I will come to be a monk!". Since he was extremely serious around his salvation, Luther chose to join the most severe monastic stimulate available, the Augustinian friars. His dad was really upset. He had actually wanted boy name to come to be a lawyer and could not know why his son chose to come to be a monk. While in the monastery, Luther struggled through the attempt to earn salvation because that his soul and to make himself acceptable to God. That severely punished his body by going because that days there is no food. He went without sleep, stated many much more prayers 보다 the rules required, and confessed his guilty over and also over again. While in confession, Luther finally controlled to confess the he hated God, due to the fact that he knew the all he was doing before God was no enough. As result of his questions for salvation, Luther was advised come go back to university. The enrolled in Wittenberg university in 1508, and began a severe study the the Bible, particularly, the brand-new Testament. It remained in the book of Romans the Luther felt assured of his salvation when he review in chapter 1 city 17 the "the just shall live by faith".
Your options: < The voyages of exploration > < The northern Renaissance > < The Italian Renaissance > < all of these >
Answer: every one of these
The Italian Rennaisance lasted from about A.D. 1300 come 1600 and emphasized the humanities through pagan culture. The north Renaissance, which have the right to scarcely be identified from the reformation movement, began in the A.D. 1500s, and occured in countries north the Italy. It emphasized the liberal arts as well, However, the guys of the northern Renaissance felt the there to be no book about man or any type of other subject much more important 보다 the Bible.
12 where was Luther an alleged to stand trial and answer because that the action that he perpetrated i beg your pardon in effect began the Reformation?

Your options: < The royal Diet the Augsburg > < The Diet the Speyer > < The imperial Diet the Worms > < The Diet the Regensburg >
Answer: The royal Diet that Worms
In 1521, Luther to be tried prior to the imperial Diet that Worms. The Diet to be presided end by The holy Roman Emperor Charles V, that was trying come gain regulate of a attention situation. Luther to be excommunicated, yet was engendering massive support amongst the general population and so Charles wanted to it is in the figure who worked out the situation down. It is thought that Charles wanted to have actually Luther burnt at the stake as a heretic at the outset of the Diet, but was prevented from doing for this reason by Luther"s rapid abscondance from the scene. The Diet the Speyer in 1529 was crucial as gift the occasion when Protestantism was offered its name. The Diet of Speyer additionally rescinded many of what toleration had actually been granted come the pendant of young name Luther 3 years previously and collection the stage for the violence that followed. The Diet of Regensburg, organized in 1541, again presided over by Charles, was an effort to mediate the progressively entrenched Protestants by offering significant concessions. Both Luther and the Pope later rejected the concessions. The imperial Diet that Augsburg experienced the publishing of the "Interim," a formula conciliatory come the Protestants but retaining the roman inn Catholic ritual in general. Although Charles V thought that he had actually granted far-ranging concessions come the people and also the good news authorities in this document, his main worry was to do the Protestants return to the Catholic Church.
13 i m sorry of these is the practice of bishops no residing in the diocese he remained in charge of however rather do his residence in ~ the royal court or family members estate?

Answer: absenteeism
Absenteeism was common, for the bishop that a town generally made his residence in ~ the imperial court or live on a household estate. A vicar served in his stead, yet church earnings were transferred to the bishop.
14 What to be the name of the friar who, in 1517, traveled with Germany offering special indulgences to benefit the construction of St. Peter"s Cathedral in Rome, and in law so, lugged the idea that indulgences to brand-new extremes?

Answer: Tetzel Albert of Brandenburg to be a German aristocrat, that purchased the office the Archbishop that Mainz in 1517. Pope Leo X, in turn, sent Tetzel v Germany offering indulgences to reimburse Albert. Half of the money would go come Albert (which Tetzel fail to mention to the German people), and also the other half would walk to the pope for constructing the brand-new St. Peter"s Basilica in Rome. Tetzel proclaimed to the world that any buyer would instantly be released from all punishment for his sins, and also any relatives and friends in purgatory would be automatically freed to walk to heaven. His slogan was, "The money rattles in the box; the soul from purgatory flies." His shameful offering tactics made Luther an extremely angry.
Answer: john Wycliffe since he lived before the reformation began, man Wycliffe is called the "Morning Star the the Reformation". Born around 1329 and also educated at Oxford University, Wycliffe was an outstanding scholar who can not accept the doctrines of the roman inn church. He ended up being the first man to translate the entire bible into English. Wycliffe was harrassed through priests, monks, and also friars, and also his books were banned in England. Back he passed away in 1384, the roman church condemned his beliefs and also at the board of directors of Constance in 1415 bespeak his works be burned. Finally, in 1428 the pope ordered that Wycliffe"s continues to be be dug up and burned.
16 i m sorry of the complying with people started an elevation reform activity that was not an offshoot that Lutheranism?

Answer: Huldrych Zwingli
The Reformation motion started through Luther in Germany diversified almost immediately, but other revolutionary movements also arose individually of Luther. Huldrych Zwingli was the founder that one such movement. He developed a Christian theocracy in Zurich in i beg your pardon church and state joined because that the company of God. Zwingli agreed v Luther in the centrality that the doctrine of justification by faith, but he espoused a much more radical understanding of the Eucharist. Calvinism, named for man Calvin (a French lawyer who fled France ~ his conversion to the protestant cause) embraced the majority of Luther"s teachings and espoused his theories in the academy of the Christian religion in 1536 (an extensive, systematic, theological treatise). Calvin agreed with Luther"s teaching on justification by faith, however, he found a much more positive place for regulation within the Christian community than Luther walk in his concern to distinguish sharply between law and gospel. Man Knox, who had spent time in Geneva and also was significantly influenced by man Calvin, led the facility of Presbyterianism in Scotland, i beg your pardon made possible the ultimate union of Scotland through England. Arminius to be born in Holland in 1560, whereby time the majority of the Protestants in the Netherlands were Calvinists, and essentially taught a revised version of Calvinism. The essential conflict that Arminius had actually with Calvinism was concerning the theory of predestination.
Answer: Anglican Church The Church of England had no good news doctrines until after the fatality of Henry VIII, who had actually kept the church Catholic. The Church that England is regularly referred to as the Anglican church.
18 on what day in 1517 walk Martin Luther pond the Ninety-Five Theses come the door the the Wittenberg castle Church?

Answer: October 31 It to be the day before All Saints" Day, once the offering of indulgences was to it is in proclaimed again in Wittenberg, the Luther nailed his statement to the church door. He was not the an initial to difficulty the roman inn church. Over there were countless others prior to him who had protested its practices; but compared to what was soon to follow Luther"s protest, the earlier obstacles were simply slight disturbances.
19 i m sorry reformer native Bohemia to be condemned in addition to Wycliffe"s writings at the the supervisory board of Constance?

Answer: man Huss
man Huss to be born roughly 1374 come a bad family. Motivated by his mom to acquire an education, he learned theology and philosophy at the college of Prague. Huss came to be a good preacher bring about a movement for reformed Christianity to an episode in Bohemia. Alarmed at the growth of support Huss to be getting, the roman inn church encouraged Huss to walk to the board of directors of Constance in order to explain and defend his beliefs. Repeating his idea that the pope deserve to make mistakes, he refused to recant his belief that the church intended all believers, not just popes and priests. Even though Huss had gone come Constance through a safe-conduct guarantee, he was condemned through the Council and also burned at the stake in 1415. His last words were, "Lord, unto Thy hand i commend mine spirit".
Answer: Eisleben young name Luther to be born ~ above November 10, 1483, in Eisleben, saxony (now a part of Germany). His parents, Hans and Margarethe Luther, had actually moved to Eisleben from Mohra. Castle soon relocated on again to Mansfeld, wherein Hans Luther worked in the copper mines, making enough money for his son"s education. Luther was educated in ~ a college in Magdeburg and at Eisenach, and also then walk on to university at the university of Erfurt, one of the oldest and best attended colleges in Germany in ~ the time. That attained his B.A. Level in 1502 and also then his M.A. In 1505.
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21 i beg your pardon of these is believed by the Catholic church to be compelled to get absolution for sin?

Your options: < confession > < tithe > < penance > < holy living >
Answer: penance
To receive absolution because that sin, a penance to be required comparable to a fine in civil court. Action of penance in at an early stage Christianity contained making a lengthy pilgrimage or fasting on bread and water for a time. Ultimately purchased indulgences come to be the substitute because that a deed of penance.
22 What was the name of the German prince the Saxony, Luther"s part of Germany, who took interest in Luther"s writings?

Answer: Fredrick the way Luther to be summoned come Rome through Pope Leo X charging him with heresy and also contempt the church authority. Luther knew that going come Rome through a fee of heresy meant either life imprisonment or death. Appealing to Prince Fredrick, Luther received a hear on German floor in the city of Augsburg. He showed up before the pope"s representative, who tried to obtain him to retract several of his theses, yet Luther refused. He boldly stated to the cardinal that popes deserve to make mistakes, and that a papal bull (an main declaration by the pope) i beg your pardon was offered by those that favored indulgences was contrary come Scripture and should it is in rejected. The pope"s response was no favorable. That condemned 41 the Luther"s "errors", ordered Luther"s books burned, and gave Luther 60 days come submit. Luther did not submit. Instead, he held a bonfire exterior of Wittenberg and burned many publications that sustained the pope along with the papal bull providing him 60 days because that submission. Finally, on January 3, 1521, the pope excommunicated Luther.
Answer: Desiderius Erasmus Born around 1466 in Rotterdam, Erasmus lived and also studied anywhere Europe. One of two people in human being or with letters, the had pertained to know practically every major scholar top top the continent. In in march of 1516, Erasmus published the very first edition of the new Testament in the original Greek, which opened the eye of plenty of to just how much the Vulgate had distorted the new Testament. Erasmus live to watch the holy bible translated into numerous different languages. He died in 1536 as the most famed figure by much of the north Renaissance.
24 prior to splitting native (well, okay, gift excommunicated from ...) the Catholic Church, come what monastic Order walk Luther belong?

Answer: Augustinian The order of St. Augustine, generally known as the Augustinians, is just one of the four an excellent mendicant spiritual orders that the center Ages. In involvement the eremitical bespeak of St. Augustine, Luther had actually joined critical mendicant order, i beg your pardon by the middle of the 15th century had over 2,000 chapters. As a an outcome of reforms brought through in 1473, the house at Erfurt, come which Luther went, accepted the strict, observant translate of the rule of St. Augustine, written about 400 A.D. Which is a overview to religious life split into 8 chapters, which are the Purpose and also Basis of common Life; Prayer; Moderation and also Self Denial; Safeguarding Chastity,and Fraternal Correction; The care of community Goods and also Treatment of the Sick; asking Pardon and also Forgiving Offenses; Governance and Obedience; and, Observance of the Rule.
Answer: line of demarcation within a year after ~ Christopher Columbus" voyage, Ferdinand and also Isabella the Spain asked for the pope to draw a heat of demarcation to different Spanish early american territories from those the Portugal.

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